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Transcript of Biopol
It has been produced industrially through the fermentation of sugars with bacterias such as "Alcaligenes eutrophus" in tanks with a carbon food source. The bacteria cells grow and multiply until there is no more phosphate nutrients left, then glucose is added and it ferments to form ethanoic acid. Propanoic acid is then added and the molecules condense to form PHB-V.
Recently it has been produced from glucose or propionates (salts) through genetic engineering. A bacteria such as E. Coli (Escherichia coli) is genetically modified to promote faster growth, more yield of the biopolymer, and to make it easier to remove the biopolymer by making it fragile while at the same time reducing the amount of biomass waste.
Also through engineering plants like potatoes and cress (a type of cabbage), can be made to create the biopolymer instead of storing starch.
One of the major benefits with the use of Biopol is that it is biodegradable which is important because containers and disposable items will decompose faster then those made from petrochemicals, therefore reducing the space required for landfills.
The second major benefit is that its feedstock, glucose, is renewable.
The potential uses of Biopol will reduce our dependance on non-renewable fossil fuels and minimize the negative effects on the environment as it decomposes to carbon dioxide and water instead of being around for a long time.
The production of Biopol which does not involve burning creates fewer emissions of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide which is produced is used to create more of the biopolymer through photosynthesis.
Biopol in medicine could also save many lives, due to its many potential applications, and biocompatibility which could lead to fewer allergic reactions.
On the other hand Biopol is a more expensive alternative to fossil fuels with about 15 times more production costs. Manufacturers, according to the Chemistry Recent Polymers Notes (see references), have also not been using Biopol because of the ability to recycle the already made polymers.
What are its properties?
* Is produced naturally by renewable agricultural resources and because of this it can be consumed by natural bacterias which makes it fully biodegradable.
* Is stable in air.
* Insoluble in water.
* UV light resistant.
* acid and base resistant.
* high melting point, Around 175 degrees Celsius.
* high tensile strength.
What is it?
Biopol is the trade name of a type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) consisting of the monomers polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) called Poly(m-hydroxybutyrate-co-n-hydroxyvalerate (Biopol P(3HB-3HV) PHBV. These acids are both produced naturally from the fermentation of sugars by the bacterias Azobacter and Psuedomonas.
SYNTHETIC BIOPOLYMERS – Biopol® - http://hscchem.wikispaces.com/file/view/biopol.pdf
What's the difference between Biopol, PHA and PHB? - http://community.boredofstudies.org/showthread.php?t=294831
Biopol - http://community.boredofstudies.org/showthread.php?t=94798
Advances in the Applications of Polyhydroxyalkanoate - http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/581684/
Ningbo TianAn Biologic Materials Co., Ltd. - http://www.tianan-enmat.com
David Hawley - Chemistry Recent Polymers Support Notes
Year 12 Chemistry student research biolpolyer six key dot points (From Mr McLennan)
Morphology and Thermal Properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/Attapulgite Nanocomposites - http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mr/v14n3/aop_0795-11.pdf
Supercritical antisolvent precipitation of PHBV microparticles - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517306006521
* biocompatable meaning it is "not harmful or toxic to living tissue."
What Are Its Potential Uses?
A textbook released in 2001 stated that Biopol has not been produced commercially since 1999 because of the high production costs. It was difficult to find information on whether it was still being produced today although one site said it is currently being used to produce biodegradable plastic bags, nappies and plastic wrapping but no specific evidence was given.
* Plastic replacement instead of petroleum made plastics because they are biodegradable.
* Disposable food products like plastic cups, utensils, plates etc.
* Plastic wrapping.
* Disposable hygienic products such as shampoo bottles, cosmetics, razors, rubbish bags, and nappies, because it is strong, insoluble in water, non-toxic and biodegradable.
* Pesticide, fertilizer and chemical containers because it is acid and base resistant, biodegradable and non-toxic.
* In mulches that can degrade over time.
* Medical and pharmaceutical uses such as implants, stiches, slings, cardiovascular patches, drug carriers and coatings for drugs because it is non-toxic, biocompatable and biodegradable. High grade Biopol has also been made for woven patches for use inside the body to protect tissues from scarring after surgery. After the wound is healed, enzymes in the blood dissolve away the patch. Biopol is compatible within the body and therefore rejection is not an issue.
* Fishing nets because it is biodegradable, strong and insoluble in water.
* Credit Cards because is strong, insoluble, UV resistant, biodegradable and acid and base resistant.
It is a biodegradable thermoplastic.
(a) PHBV 30%; (b) PHBV 12%; (c) PHBV 8%; (d) PHB.
Supercritical antisolvent precipitation of PHBV microparticles