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YARN

LOOP, BRAID, AND VISCOSE
by

Nadim Abillama

on 2 August 2013

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Transcript of YARN

Narrow fabrics are usually decorative in nature but are often used in a large variety of home to add a decorative look to home appliances or clothing
YARNING
OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
Fabrics refer to any textile materials made through weaving, knitting, looping, braiding or plaiting and bonding of fibers.
NATURAL
Natural fabrics such as Cashmere, Cotton, Hemp, Jute, Linen, Ramie, Silk, Wool etc.
SYNTHETIC
Synthetic or man-made fabrics like Acetate, Acrylic, Chiffon, Denim, Georgette, Lastex, Nylon, Organza, Polyester Fabrics, Rayon, Satin, Velvet etc.
The loop yarn is the result of the excess soft spun yarn being formed into well-shaped circular loops on the hard-spun core.
LOOP YARN
Three methods exist to produce fancy yarns: ring twisting, wrap spinning and a combination of the two cited methods.
CONSTRUCTION
A variety of loop yarns are created by twisting together two or more threads sometimes different in thickness, color and softness.
TWISTED METHOD
The wrap spinning refers to the conventional roller drafting method.
WRAPPING METHOD
The initial yarn and the core yarns are made on the fancy hollow spindle spinner.
WRAP SPINNING AND RING TWISTED METHOD
ORIGIN
CONSTRUCTION
USES - EFFECT
Fiber spinning into yarns is an ancient artistic activity that its origins are lost in the mists of time.
ORIGIN
Loop yarns are not hard-wearing if they are used alone.
Combined with a hardwearing yarn.
Expensive to produce
USES
Hardly ever add strength to the fabric.
Give sensitivity to the fabric
Adds warmth to the fabric.
Increase absorbency of fabrics
EFFECT
Braiding is a simple form of narrow fabric construction. It is made by interweaving three or more strands, strips, or lengths, in a transversely overlapping pattern.
BRAID
ORIGIN
TYPES
MATERIAL USED
USES
It began as a handicraft for the construction of decorative fabrics but the limitations of knitting and weaving made braiding an important method of fabric formation in textile composite manufacturing industry.
ORIGIN
TWO-DIMENSIONAL BRAID
THREE-DIMENSIONAL BRAID
The loop yarn is the result of the excess soft spun yarn being formed into well-shaped circular loops on the hard-spun core.
Spindles were created, they are rods or pins, tapered at one end and usually weighted at the other, on which fibers are spun by hand into thread and then wound.
A whorl was added to the bottom of the spindle to make it more efficient and steady.
The invention of the spinning wheel that revolutionized the manufacture of yarn and textiles. The first spinning wheel’s origins are also unknown but it has been told that it was originated in India between 500 and 1000AD.
After some time, spinning wheels with rims instead of spokes.
The innovation of the spinning wheel enhanced the production’s rapidity to 100 times faster.
Starting the 18th century, rapid innovations in the technological sector improved the production even more.
Crochet knitting machines have been found ideal for this purpose and have replaced large numbers of traditional braiding machines.
TYPES
Two-dimensional braid structure can be spherical or flat braid. They are formed by crossing a number of yarns diagonally so that each yarn passes over and under one or more of the others.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL
Circular braids are formed around a center core.
CIRCULAR BRAIDING-MECHANISM
Rotary machines are less flexible in terms of making different shapes as they don’t have enough carriers.
ROTARY BRAIDING-MACHINE
However three-dimensional braiding is new compared to the two-dimensional braid and was developed mainly for composite structures.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL
Horn gear machines are used in the fabrication of solid braids.
HORN GEAR BRAIDING PROCESS
The basic Cartesian process involves four distinct Cartesian movements of groups of yarns.
CARTESIAN BRAIDING PROCESS
MATERIAL USED
Tapes, laces, & ribbons, etc made of satin look very luxurious.

SATIN
Giving a velvety look & feel, narrow fabrics such as tapes are made from velvet.
VELVET
The durable synthetic material is used to make different kinds of tapes, webbings, straps, etc.
POLYESTER
Teflon is a popular material used for various kinds of tapes etc, for industrial applications.
TEFLON
Tapes made from rubber are widely used for different purposes.
RUBBER
The 100% bio-degradable material is used to webbings.
JUTE
Extremely durable & available in different colors & textures, nylon is made use of, for making high quality tapes, straps, etc.
NYLON
Wicks made of fiberglass are gaining popularity due to their chemical properties.
FIBERGLASS
Trims, fringes made of shiny beads of different shapes and sizes are gaining popularity.
BEADS
Processed to make a highly decorative medley of laces, wicks, tapes, webbings and lots more.
COTTON
Rayon is family of bio-based manufactured which does not make it a synthetic fiber, nor a natural one, textiles produced from natural raw materials. It is made from regenerated cellulose. This family includes Acetate, Tencel, Modal and Viscose.
INTRODUCTION
USES
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Sports underwear
Lingerie
Automotive industry
Medical uses
Marine industry
Packaging
Industrial protective wear
USES
Braiding is more significant for industrial fabrics than consumer textiles.
Because of the special properties, braids can be found in many different applications.
SPORTS UNDERWEAR
LINGERIE
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
MEDICAL USES
MARINE INDUSTRY
PACKAGING
INDUSTRIAL PROTECTIVE WEAR
VISCOSE
Rayon is:
Flexible
Same comfort properties as natural fibers
Relaxing
Highly spongy
Do not insulate body heat
INTRODUCTION
Viscose fabric is a part of the rayon family which are all manufactured with cellulose. It was discovered by a French scientist and industrialist.
Like other fabrics in the rayon family, viscose is soft, smooth, cool, comfortable, and highly absorbent.
Viscose knits are usually blended with Lycra for better stretch. The process of creating this material is fairly complex.
Manufacturers make viscose with wood pulp; they sometimes use different sources like bamboo.
Caustic soda is integrated to treat wood cellulose, and then it is allowed to age until it’s treated again with caustic soda and carbon disulphide.
Manufacturers spin the resulting product through various mechanisms and wash it through water baths and similar methods.
It is then extracted out of one or more slits to produce threads or other forms necessary in different applications. Since it begins with wood, it is not a synthetic material.
Clothing
Tablecloths
Furniture slipcovers
Bed sheets
Simple curtains
Cellophane
Medical tools
Wide decorative choice for their homes
Cheap
Require less cleaning
Wrinkle easily
Cannot be machine-washed or dried
Process used to make Viscose is not eco-friendly
USES
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
NADIM ABILLAMA
SAMER BAKI
INTRODUCTION
LOOP YARN
BRAID
VISCOSE
CLOTHING
TABLECLOTHS
FURNITURE SLIPCOVERS
BED SHEETS
SIMPLE CURTAINS
CELLOPHANE
MEDICAL TOOLS
Full transcript