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TOK animal testing presentation

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by

Taylor Ross

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of TOK animal testing presentation

Types of Animals Used in Experimentation
Dogs
Cats
Non-human Primates (Monkeys)
Rabbits
Guinea Pigs and Hamsters
Mice and Rats
Farm Animals: Pigs, Cows, Sheep, and Goats
Fish
Sources of animals
Class A
Class B
Types of Animal Testing
Draize Eye Testing
Repeated Dose Toxicity
Skin Corrosive/ Irritation
Skin Sensitivity
Pharmacokinetics/ Toxicokinetics and Metabolism
Dermal Penetration
Mutagenicity
Carcinogenicity
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Neurotoxcity
Ecotoxicity
Pyrogenicity
Pros
Life saving contributions
No alternative
Ethical considerations
Animals benefit
Highly regulated
Short life cycles
Ensure safety
Endorsement
Cons
Cruel and inhumane
Alternative testing
Different from humans
Drugs passed not safe
Misleading
95% not protected
Unreliable
More expensive/ Waste of money
Flawed experiments
Speciesism
Animal Abuse
Not essential
"The time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look on the murder of men."
- Leonardo da Vinci
"The question is not "can they reason?" nor, "can they talk?" but "can they suffer?"" - Jeremy Bentham
USA Federal Regulations
Animal Welfare Act (AWA)
Institutional Animal Care and Committee Use (IACUC)
National Institute of Health's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

Would it be considered ethical to experiment and potentially harm one species for the betterment of another?
Lethal Dose (LD50)
Substitutions
Fixed Dose Procedure (FDP)
Acute Toxic Class (ACT)
Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP)
Animal Testing
To what extent does the progression of society override commonly understood ethics or morals?
1. Do you personally believe animal testing is morally correct?
A) yes
B) no
2. Do you personally believe animal testing is necessary?
A) yes
B) no
3. On average how many animals are tested per year?
A) 4.2 billion
B) 13.7 million
C) 19.5 million
Is there a difference in the moral justification of harm done through action rather than omission?
Substitutions/ Solutions
Reduce
Replace
Refine
Knowledge Issues:
Animal-Based Safety Tests Gone Wrong
Thalidomide
Oraflex, Opren (Benoxaprofen)
Rezulin (Troglitazone)
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
“Auschwitz begins whenever someone looks at a slaughterhouse and thinks: they’re only animals.”
-Theodor W. Adorno
Japan
Cenotaphs
Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods
UK
Testing on two different species
Controlled by legislation
Animals Act of 1986
Three home office licenses
Case Study: Britches a Macaque Monkey
Sensory substitution devices for the blind
Animal Liberation Front
National Institutes of Health
Full transcript