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World War II Unit

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Kristine Cooney

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of World War II Unit

The Allied and Axis Powers
What happened here?
$1.25
Monday, March 03-28, 2014
Chapter 15
Propaganda
Leaders of WWII
Causes of World War II
Symbols
World War II in Great Britain
D-Day Invasion
Symbols are used to convey ideas and beliefs
4 Characteristics
Mission Fact Sheet
Four Major Causes
objects that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, action, or material entity

"You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you."
Information of a bias nature used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view
World War II Unit
Pearl Harbor - December 7, 1941
Timeline of Events - December 7, 1941
"
A Date Which Will Live in Infamy
!" -FDR
Franklin Roosevelt - The United States
• Man of the people
• President 1932-1945 (had goals for relief, recovery, reform)
• Gave people a voice and hope through fireside chats
• Arsenal for democracy (believed in Four Freedoms: speech, worship, from fear, from want)
• Declared war after Pearl Harbor and most of the U.S. backed decision
• Goal was to crush Nazi Germany, Italy, and Japan with the Allies
• Died in before WWII ended, shocking the American people

Joseph Stalin - Soviet Union
• Ruthless leader, named the “man of steel”, known as a great manipulator
• Imprisoned 8 times by Russian secret police
• Gained power after Bolshevik Revolution when the nation turned to communism
• Created one of the largest industrial economies in the world and increased food production
• If people did not comply to his authority the were sent to labor camps or executed
• Reign of terror (man-made famine)
• Signed nonaggression agreement with Hitler at the start of WWII-it fell apart and German’s invaded (Germany underestimated Stalin)
• Most feared man in the Soviet Union
• Made the Soviet Union into a global super power

Winston Churchill - Great Britain
• Became prime minister of Great Britain in 1940 when the former resigned
• Built strong relationships with FDR
• Maintained difficult alliances with the Soviet Union when Germany invaded
• Believed it was more important for his nation to go down fighting, that exploring peace terms with Hitler meant defeat
• After France was invaded Hitler expected him to surrender his country
• Many people did not like his ideas and perspective on politics but rise of Nazi party changed people’s minds about Churchill’s leadership
• "Happy" when Pearl Harbor occurred because he knew the U.S. would have no choice but to enter the war meaning it could be one
• Gave voice and hope to his people through his speeches, radio broadcasts, and even military efforts

“Victory. Victory at all costs. Victory in spite of all terror. Victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.”
Hideki Tojo - Japan
• Prime minister of Japan
• Directly responsible for Pearl Harbor attacks, initiating the war between Japan and the U.S.
• Supported treaty between Japan, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy
• Expanded war with China
• Charismatic and well-connected, trusted by the Emperor
• Had many notable victories during WWII
• After the Battle of Midway he experienced opposition in the government and military

Benito Mussolini - Italy
• Leader of the National Fascist Party
• He was prime minister and set up a legal dictatorship, creating a totalitarian state
• When WWII began he sided with Germany, but knew Italy lacked the military strength to take on France and the United Kingdom
• Wanted to connect Italy to its Roman past
• Launched an economic policy to better agriculture and increase national food supply
• Advocated for government run businesses and enacted price controls to help stabilize the economy
• While Hitler admired Mussolini, Mussolini had little regard for Hitler - disagreed with the radical ideas about the superiority of races and the killing off people because of it.
• Hitler’s power influenced Italian politics and pushed Fascism aside and many Italians opposed Germany
• When WWII began he believed it would not last long and that the Germans would win so he joined the Axis powers – many Italians believed that the war was not their fight
• Joining the war resulted in a loss in popularity with the Italian people
Adolf Hitler - Germany
• Seen as a fanatic leader - Some believe that Hitler believed that his mission was to eliminate the world of Jews
• Gave voice to German pride
• After WWI Germany was barely surviving so people were open to ideas of Hitler
• Was imprisoned for radical ideas and trying to overthrow the Republic
• Anti-Semitism was used as a tool to gain power
• Invaded Poland and the Soviet Union (hated communism)
• Was appointed Chancellor and within a year declared himself the ruler of Germany (a dictator)
• Under his rule the Nazis occupied much of Europe and North Africa
• He believed that certain races of people were inferior
• Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the strong.
• Oversaw the largest infrastructure improvement, increased rights/bettered conditions for workers
• Hitler wanted to see Germany restored politically, economically, culturally, etc.

Treaty of Versailles
Hitler's Actions
Policy of
Appeasement
Failure of the
League of Nations
Terms:
1) Germany pays reparations

2) Germany cannot build up their military

3) Union with Austria was forbidden
German feelings:
- humiliated
- insecure
- unsafe
- disbelief
- anger
- cheated
- wanted revenge
1) Re-armament


2) Reclaimed the Rhineland (part of Austria)


3) Made alliances


4) United German people


5) Invaded European countries
Define appeasement:
giving into someone's demands
Politicians in Europe believed...
1) The Treaty of Versailles was unfair

2) A strong Germany would prevent the spread of communism
...they understood...
Germany's reasoning for building its military
Overall conditions in Europe hindered its success…
much of the world was experiencing a depression (no trade, jobs, money, etc.)
1) Not all countries joined the League


2) The League had no power


3) The League had no army


4) It was unable to act quickly

Persuasive

Created for large audiences

Bias to a certain point of view

Uses stereotypes and/or emotion to create response rather than logic
Types of Propaganda
Assertion
many will believe the idea
words used = best, most popular, never disappointed
simple statements (
don't require explanation-think of them as opinion statements without any evidence to back them up
)
Bandwagon
make everyone believe that they are missing out on something
"everyone is doing it, you should too!"
False Dilemma
gives the audience the idea that nothing else will work

the opinion, product, etc. being expressed is the only right choice
Name-Calling
the purpose is to create or provoke an emotional response

can be used to dehumanize and/or humiliate the enemy
Pinpointing the Enemy
problem is stated and the blame is placed on a specific person or group
Now It Is Your Turn
This about a topic you are interested in and or have an opinion about
It needs to be from the present day (
use the list we created to help
)

Your goal is to persuade your audience to think the way you do or get them to do what you want.

Good luck!
Three Meanings

Personal - taken from our experiences

Cultural - how we are raised (different from culture to culture)

Universal - some have similar meaning around the world
Bats
Eastern cultures = good fortune
Western cultures = demons or evil spirits
Dragons
East Asia = protection against evil
Europe = evil and dangerous
Infinity Symbol
East = perfection and unity
West = unlimited quantity of something
The Color Black
Eastern culture = wealth, health, and prosperity
Western culture = death, mourning, and rebellion
The Color White
Eastern culture = death and sadness
Western culture = peace and purity
Hexagram
Many cultures = witchcraft
Jewish culture = symbol of the Jewish religion (Star of David)
Peace Sign
Historically = destruction of Christianity
Present Day = hope, peace, and unity
Snakes
Pagan = rebirth and protection from evil
Christians = sin, temptation, and destruction
Spiders
Chinese = bringer of joy from Heaven
Most cultures = trickster and death
Cross
Pagan = symbol of their Sun-God
Christianity = crucifix, symbol of faith
History of the Swastika
Symbol of Peace?
Ancient Religious Symbol?
Hate, Evil, Genocide?
All of the Above?
The City of London
St. Paul's Cathedral
Along the River Thames
http://bombsight.org/#
Other Significant Landmarks
What did civilians do?
over 1 million homes were lost
over 40,000 British civilians died
thousands upon thousands injured
1. Many used the underground for shelter and/or a permanent home.
2. Some had shelters in their backyards (some shared by multiple families).
3. Some left London for the countryside (mostly children)
Where is Winston Churchill?
He sought shelter in an underground bunker known as the Churchill War Rooms
Never Forgotten - WWII Memorials
















































































































6:30 am
7:00 am
8:25 am
7:55 am
6:00 am
3:40 am
6:30 am
Ships were anchored at Pearl Harbor. It was Sunday morning and men are sleeping, eating breakfast, relaxing on the sunny decks, or preparing to go ashore for last minute Christmas shopping.
7:00 am
Privates at a radar station detect a huge blip and recognize it as a large group of aircraft. They are only 130 miles away and are coming quickly. When he reports it he is told not to worry that American air force planes were coming from the mainland.
7:55 am
A messenger is headed to military headquarters carrying a message from Washington warning of a possible attack. Suddenly an explosion cuts through the air. Bombs and torpedoes are dropped one after another onto the U.S. Navy’s battleships.
8:25 am
The first raid lasts 30 min and much of the Pacific fleet is in ruins.
Battleship Oklahoma was blown up by three torpedoes
Battleships West Virginia and California were both sunk
Battleship Arizona was sunk killing most of its crew that were still in bed
3:40 am
U.S. Navy ship Condor sees a submarine a few miles from the base in Hawaii. When they investigate the submarine seems to have disappeared and the sighting is not reported to headquarters.
6:00 am
Located about here
Japanese planes are warming up on aircraft carriers anchored in the Pacific Ocean, north of Hawaii. The first wave attack included 185 planes.
Located about Here
The crew of the Condor spots another submarine and they sink it. They send a message to headquarters: "We have attacked, fired on, depth-charged, and sunk submarine operating in defensive sea area." The code is decoded slowly and no alerts are made.
Battleship Utah capsizes and sinks. With Japanese planes flying overhead, hundreds of wounded men struggle in the water trying to reach shore. People are running around. Everything is chaotic and unorganized.
A second wave of Japanese planes strikes the harbor. The heavy smoke from the fires prevents the Japanese from accurately hitting their targets.
By 9:30 am the attack was over and the Japanese planes withdrew from the island.
December 8, 1941
Navy men were given the day off to look for their families and loved ones.

The country was filled with insecurity, panic, anger, and shock.
12:00 pm - FDR addresses Congress and asks for a declaration of war.
FDR's Speech to Congress
December 8, 1941
Casualties and Damage
18 ships sunk or very damaged
300 army or navy places destroyed
over 2400 American died
Mission Title: D-Day
The "D" does not really stand for anything specific.

It basically means "day of mission" meaning it was a secret mission named long before a date was set.
Head of the Mission: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Mission Goal
Cross the English Channel to invade Nazi occupied France and liberate Western Europe
It is known as one of the largest, most ambitious missions in history
Obstacles in Normandy
Hitler suspected an attack in Northern France and began building up defenses along the coast
fortified bunkers
landmines
beach/water obstacles
Targets
To invade, take over, and secure 5 beaches along the coast of Northern France
Equipment Required
5,000 ships and small water vessels
11,000 aircraft
bombs and artillery
guns and ammunition
communication devices
Each paratrooper carried 70-90 pounds of equipment
Men Involved
156,000 Americans, British, and Canadian soldiers were involved in the D-Day invasion
The invasion from the air involved 6 regiments of soldiers (about 13,000 men)
Mission Results
Casualties:
about 4,000 men died in the D-Day invasion (2,000 died on at Omaha alone - heaviest resistance occurred there)
Paratroopers:
many groups were successful in landing behind enemy lines and secured bridges and exit roads.
Battle:
The invasion started what became known as the Battle of Normandy (June 1944-August 1944)
Long-term effects:
the invasion secured the beaches and allowed for hundreds of thousands of troops to land in France. This ultimately led to the Allies liberating Western Europe.
Some say this was the "beginning of the end!"
Memorial/Cemetery
Overlooking the beaches (Omaha specifically) is the first U.S. cemetery in Europe.
Here are the graves of more than 9,300 men who lost their lives on D-Day and in the missions that followed
War in the Pacific
The Battle of the Coral Sea - May 1942
U.S. engaged a superior Japanese fleet
Fighting was entirely by aircraft - the first of its kind (enemy ships never saw each other)
Both sides lost half of their aircraft and ships
Militarily a draw
Long-term, it prevented the Japanese from establishing bases to bomb and invade Australia
Battle of Midway - June 4, 1942
Japanese goal = destroy remainder of U.S. fleet
Midway was targeted because it was vital to defense of Hawaii
Battle was fought entirely in the air
U.S. planes surprised Japanese ships - destroyed three and a fourth as it tried to escape
The Japanese naval power was devastated - they were unable to launch an offensive attacks
Battle of Guadalcanal - August 1942
Offensive move by Allies
Goal = capture Guadalcanal in Solomon Islands
11,000 marines landed and 2,200 Japanese fled into the jungle - followed by months of fighting
U.S. gained control of waters surrounding the area
1st taste of jungle warfare by U.S. troops
In February 1943 - Japanese slipped off the island undetected
Battle of Iwo Jima - February 1945
Starting in November 1944 - U.S. planes and ships dropped 7,000 tons of bombs and 20,000 shells
One of the bloodiest battles of the war - long and intense
Steep, rocky slopes were honeycombed with caves and tunnels. They hid guns in concrete bunkers
Marines stormed the beaches in February
Took 3 days to gain 700 yards
110,000 U.S. troops vs. 25,000 Japanese
Took about a month to secure island
Japanese fought to the death - only 217 surrendered
25,000 U.S. soldiers died
The Battle of Okinawa - April to June 1945
Very bloody battle
100,000 Japanese knew they were the last obstacle between the Allies and Japan - fought to the death
1,300 Allie ships and 180,000 Allie troops
Allies attacked by kamikazes and banzai charges
7,200 Japanese surrendered
50,000 Allies killed (costliest engagement in the Pacific)
Victory opened the door to invade Japan
A New Weapon
In
August 1939
, FDR received a letter from
Albert Einstein
about a powerful new type of bomb.
FDR
decided to develop what became known as the
atomic bomb
by organizing the secret
Manhattan Project
.
How does the atomic bomb work?
Controlled chain reaction from splitting of atoms
The splitting of one atom cause the splitting of others to produce a massive explosion
Field tested in July 1945 in New Mexico - created a crater and shattered windows 125 miles away
"Now I have become Death, the destroyer of worlds." - Oppenheimer (head of development)
Options?
1. Drop the atomic bomb
2. Massive invasion
3. Naval blockade
4. Threaten Japan with the bomb
5. Demonstrate the power of the bomb on a nearby island
6. Soften the insistence of unconditional surrender
The high number of casualties at Iwo Jima and Okinawa was a major factor in the decision that rested with President Harry S. Truman
August 6, 1945 - an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima (an estimated 140,000 died with 90 percent of buildings destroyed
August 9, 1945 - a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki (this produced similar destruction)
August 14, 1945 - the Japanese government accepted the American terms for surrender
Which Do You Believe?
1) We should not have used any atomic bombs at all.
2) We should have dropped the first one on some unpopulated region, to show the Japanese its power, and dropped the second one on a city only if they hadn't surrendered.
3) We should have used the two bombs on the cities just as we did.
4) We should have quickly used many more of them before Japan had a chance to surrender.
Pick One to Answer/Comment On
Is war ever the right choice? Explain.
Plato said "
Only the dead have seen the end of war.
" Is he right?
Can you make rules for war?
Is war a natural part of life? Explain
.
What role do values/morals play in war?

Why is war glorified?
What is violence and is it a necessary part of society?
What would it be like to take another human life?
Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
The Video Game Debate
raises heart rate and blood pressure
decreases prosocial behaviors
increases aggressive feelings, thinking, and behaviors
Should we be concerned?
Milgram Obedience Study
Discussion Questions
Is violence a necessary part of society?
Do you think the media has desensitized us to violence?
Why are humans violent?
Do you think our society today is more violent than in the past?
Is violence part of our nature or is it learned?
Bill Cosby said, "
The world is addicted to [violence].
" Is he right?
The Holocaust
Why are the Jews hated so much?
1. Economic -- "We hate Jews because they possess too much wealth and power."

2. Chosen People -- "We hate Jews because they arrogantly claim that they are the chosen people."

3. Scapegoat -- "Jews are a convenient group to single out and blame for our troubles."

4. Murders -- "We hate Jews because they killed Jesus."

5. Outsiders, -- "We hate Jews because they are different than us." (The dislike of the unlike.)

6. Racial Theory -- "We hate Jews because they are an inferior race."

History of Jewish Persecution
Genocide
Profiling Perspectives
There were many people involved in the Holocaust, each with their own purpose and story to tell.
Nazi Germany - WWII
Victims
Jews
Gypsies
Poles/Slavs
Politicians
Clergy
People with mental/physical disabilities
Jehovah's witness
Homosexuals
Perpetrators
Adolf Hitler given much of the credit
...but there were thousands of people that carried out his vision for a pure society
The Holocaust
The greatest systemic killing of the Jewish people
Six million Jews were killed 2/3 of Europe's Jewish population
5-6 million other people were killed in Nazi captivity
Justification for persecution and killing = obtain a superior race by riding the world of an inferior race
Nazi party leaders
Military leaders
Bankers
Professors
Doctors
Journalists
Engineers
Judges
Authors
Lawyers
Salesmen
Police
Civil Servants
They wanted power
These people profited financial, wanted someone to blame for failures, and/or they were following orders
Bystanders
These were the people in Nazi Germany who played it safe
They were ordinary citizens
The world in general was a bystander
"Indifference is not so much a gesture of looking away--of choosing to be passive--as it is an active disinclination to feel. Indifference shuts down the humane, and does it deliberately, with all the strength deliberateness demands. Indifference is as determined--and as forcefully muscular--as any blow."
-Cynthia Ozick
The Nazis Justification
"We must be ruthless...Only thus shall we purge our people of their softness...and their degenerate delight in beer-swilling...I don't want the concentration camps transformed into penitentiaries. Terror is the most effective political instrument...It is my duty to make use of every means of training the German people to cruelty, and to prepare them for war...There must be no weakness or tenderness."
-Adolf Hitler
"The German people were in the hands of the police, the police were in the hands of the Nazi Party, and the Party was in the hands of a ring of evil men...."
"Most of you know what it means when 100 corpses are lying side by side, or 500 or 1000. To have stuck it out and at the same time--apart from exceptions caused by human weakness--to have remained decent fellows, that is what has made us hard. This is a page of glory in our history which has never been written and is never to be written...."
-Himmler
Note:
Himmler was the man put in charge of building the death camps. This quote shows his logic twisted these unbelievable atrocities into acts of greatness
Resisters and Rescuers
Many armed rebellions appeared (resisters)
Rescuers risked their own safety to help the Jews
Thousands survived because of their efforts
Peasants, nannies, aristocrats, clergy, bankers, doctors, social workers, store owners, children, police, diplomats, etc.
Liberators
These were the Allie forces that invaded Germany and ended World War II.
"It was a reign which, nearly half a century later, still challenges our understanding. Evil was rewarded and good acts were punished. Bullies were aggrandized and the meek trampled. In this mad world, most people lost their bearings. Fear disoriented them, and self-protection blinded them. A few, however, did not lose their way. A few took their direction from their own moral compass."
British, Americans, French, etc.
Survivors
They are the only reason we know what happened in the death camps
Early Actions Against the Jews
Nuremberg Laws:
Jewish people lost German citizenship and it was illegal to marry a non-Jew
Programs to "Aryanize" Jewish Businesses
Register property
Employees and mangers dismissed
Doctors could not treat non-Jews
ID cards were required at all times (marked with red "J")
Ghettos
Portions of cities were sealed off with walls and barbed wire and Jews were required to reside within those boundaries
The problems that arose were hunger, overcrowding, and lack of sanitation that brought on disease
Three Groups to Control Jewish Action
private armies were created to crush rebellion against Nazis
1.
Gestapo:
German secret police (carried out investigations into activities against the Nazi Party)
2.
Kristallnacht:
("Night of Broken Glass") a night in which Nazis throughout Germany looted and destroyed Jewish stores, houses, and synagogues
3.
Einsatzgruppen:
("mobile killing units") systematically murdered members of Poland's upper class, along with intellectuals, priests, and influential Jews.
So What Happened Next?
After some time went by the Nazis began cleaning out the ghettos and moving the Jews to camps in rural areas.
The Nazis had been discussing how to deal with the "Jewish Question" for some time - it was proposed that special concentration camps be established rurally where the destruction of the Jews could be carried out
Six death camps were established in Poland
After leaving the ghetto...
people were crammed onto trains
upon arrival the elderly, weak, and most women with children were killed in the gas chambers (bodies later were burned)
all possessions were taken
Experience in the Death Camps
If you were not killed when you arrived in the camp this is what you could expect
registration number tattooed on arm
shaved head
one set of clothing
crowed, unheated barrack with no bathrooms or beds
thin, foul-tasking soup made with rotten vegetables
disease
periodic selections were made looking for the weak and sick (they were sent to the gas chambers)
Note: Of all the death camps Auschwitz is most well known. 1.5 million people died there (90 percent Jews). Most people never left Auschwitz alive.
What were the gas chambers?
In 1941, the Nazis began experimenting on prisoners of war to determine the most effective way to kill people
A gas known as Zyklon B (cyanide based pesticide) was chosen
odorless
solid pellets were dropped into pipes of chambers described as showers
went wet the pellets would release the gas
death usually occurred with 20 minutes (depended on proximity to pipes)
the poisonous gas affected respiratory function
The first day: 2,300 were killed
Auschwitz Bunker 1 held 800 victims, Bunker 2 held 1200 victims
Afterward, the bodies were burned in large ovens known as crematoria
How many is 6 million?
The entire population of Missouri or Maryland.
The entire population of Sierra Leone or Nicaragua.
Or the cities of Huston or Philadelphia...
The entire population of Michigan is between 9 and 10 million.
6 million people live in the southern counties.
Football Stadiums
184,906 people can fit in these two stadiums
To reach 6 million you would need to fill them about 32.5 times
There are 31 NFL stadiums in the United States you would need o fill all of them 3 times to reach 6 million.
6 million miles would equal about 241.5 trips around the Earth
6 million inches = 500,000 feet (95 miles)
The Mariana Trench, at its deepest point, is 36,000 feet or just under 7 miles.
Facebook had about 6 million members in the first year to year and a half (2005)
Full transcript