Theater Math Spring 2013 GED 613

A presentation by Marcy Edelstein Have you noticed that as you walk away from someone speaking, the talker's voice level decreases as perceived by your ears? What's happening is this: distance from a sound source affects the sound pressure level (SPL) on your ears in a particular way. It's described by the inverse square law which states that as listeners double their distance from the sound source, the SPL they perceive will decrease by 6.02dB. Surprisingly, math is truly everywhere. So much so, that innovative children's programs include math every day and playwrights have written plays all about math. Costume Shapes Shapes have always played a role in our clothes, and as playwright W.R. Inge once said, "Theater is a reflection of life." Formulas Mathematical Lighting As seen in the drawing to the right:

D = throw distance, V = vertical height, H = horizontal distance,

C = focus angle off horizontal, K = focus angle off vertical,

F = beam or field angle of fixture

X = beam spread (beam oval width), Y = beam oval length

mf = beam spread multiplying factor Stage lights are suspended from electrics - bars hanging across the width of the stage. Most stages have four electrics, each electric has between 8 and 26 circuits where lights can be patched in to a corresponding switch on the light board. So if the first electric has 10 lights, the 2nd electric has 15, the third electric has 20 and the fourth electric has 12, how many lights are there? The Parts of a Theater Sound Realization Seating - Proscenium (the area surrounding the stage opening, the arch)

- The stage and apron

- The wings (the off-stage areas on either side of the stage)

- The curtains

- The stage lights and light board

- The speakers, microphones and sound board

- The audience (the orchestra, mezzanine and balcony sections) Creature comforts, or, as we get bigger, so must our seats! Bigger Chairs = Less Chairs Note: Not all theaters are the same! We are focusing on proscenium stages, but there are also thrust stages, traverse stages and theater in the round. To make this, a lot of math was used! Proscenium height: 18 feet

Proscenium width:

52 feet The apron is the curved area at the front of the stage which varies in size.

Apron length from the center of the curve to the back wall of the theater: 42 feet Dimensions from University of Houston-Clear Lake Theater Curtains - or draperies - are the giant pieces of hanging cloth that block the audiences' view of areas of the stage depending on the given theatrical moment. The main curtain - the grand traveler (pleated) is 25 feet high and 60 feet long. The legs, the side curtains, also pleated are 22 feet high and 15 feet wide. Data and image from Lighting & Electronics Inc, 2004 1E=10

2E=15

3E=20

4E=12 10+15+20+12=57 lights Now if each electric has 26 circuits, how many circuits in all? 26x4=104 circuits Different lighting equipment is used for various needs: Altman 360Q Ellipsoidal The Beam Angle = angle between the two directions opposed to each other over the beam axis for which the luminous intensity is half that of the maximum luminous intensity.

The Field Angle = angle between the two directions opposed to each other over the beam axis for which the luminous intensity is 10% that of the maximum luminous intensity.

The Beam Spread is a general term, describing the angle between the two directions opposed to each other over the beam axis for which the luminous intensity is a certain fraction of that of the maximum luminous intensity. The amount of that fraction needs to be given in each specific case. Calculate: MULTIPLYING FACTOR of any angle, as follows:

BEAM WIDTH

MF = -------- -or- MF = ANGLE x .018

DISTANCE Altman 6" Fresnel Par64 Can Calculate: ANGLE, as follows:

MF BEAM WIDTH

ANGLE = --- -or- ANGLE = -----

.018 DIST. x .018 Data from Shure Inc, Rick Frank To make a significant change in the gain of a sound system before it feeds back, distances need to be doubled or cut in half. (Inverse Square Law) Seating density has halved

in the past 110 years. Cheap Seats? In the early 1900s the typical Broadway scale (ratio of highest to lowest ticket price) was 6:1 – $1.50 to 25 excluding premium seating. Tickets for Mary Poppins, the current production at the New Amsterdam Theatre, range from $120 to $65 – a bit less than 2:1. Tickets for the revival of Promises Promises at the Broadway Theatre, a venue of similar size, range from $125 to $55, this scale is just a bit more than 2:1. Costumes Creating costumes requires

measuring. NCTM: Number and Operations NCTM: Number and Operations NCTM: Number and Operations NCTM: Algebra NCTM: Number and Operations NCTM: Measurement NCTM: Algebra and Measurement NCTM: Algebra NCTM: Data analysis NCTM: Measurement NCTM: Data analysis and Probability NCTM: Data analysis NCTM: Measurement NCTM: Geometry NCTM: Geometry Reader's Theater Odyssey of the Mind Proof, a play Staging requires the awareness of spatial geometry. From the point on the stage that you are standing to the space between you and your partner. Resources List http://prtl.uhcl.edu/portal/page/portal/SLO/Bayou_Theatre/Stage_Dimensions http://www.theatreprojects.com/files/pdf/Resources_IdeasInfo_sizematters.pdf http://www.stageseminars.com/howto/electric/stgmath.htm http://sewmamasew.com/blog2/2012/05/math-sewing-fractions-seam-allowances/ http://www.examiner.com/article/sewing-101-essential-math-for-sewing http://cdn.shure.com/publication/upload/513/us_pro_sound_system_design_ea.pdf http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~loebinfo/loebinfo/lighting/lighting.html

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# Theater Math SMC 613 Spring 2013

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