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Apush: Period 5 (1844-1877)
Transcript of Apush: Period 5 (1844-1877)
This was America's reasoning to expand their conquered land. They claimed it was God's purpose for them to grow. The importance was the spread of Christianity and a growth in territory for their nation.
Period 5 (1848-1877) connects to Period 8 (1945-1980) because both periods were a time of conflict between the African Americans receiving rights and the enforcement of those rights. African-Americans in period 5 have gained the liberty from slavery, the right to be considered a citizen, and the right to vote. However, many people were in opposition. The amendments were stated, but not enforced by the states. African-Americans continued to be discriminated and excluded from society. Therefore, during Period 8, African-Americans began to stand up for their rights and protested to be heard as they were lost voice in American society. In period 8, many Civil Rights Movements were passed in which enforced the rights of all races. Period 5 was the beginning to what was resolved in Period 8.
Mexican War 1846-1848
The U.S. fought Mexico for territory. This territory caused tension over the allowance of slavery in it. Partly lead to the Civil War.
Resolved fundamental questions left unresolved by the revolution. The U.S. dissolved confederation of sovereign national government. The nation was born of declaration that all men were created with equal rights liberty would continue to exist as largest slave holding country in the world.
Impacted politics in mid-19th century U.S. because of the large inflows of immigrants from cultures were marked differently from existing American culture. Nativist movements included the know Nothing of American Party of the 1850's.
A group of people who wanted reform in the country especially slavery. They found the antislavery society in 1803. They are important because they helped change American ideals at the time and pushed for slavery to end.
Federal Law was superior to state law.
States do not have the power to nullify federal law.
Nullification relied on principles of state's rights that were viewed as no longer viable after the Civil War.
Compromise of 1850
California admitted as a free state
Slavery would remain in Washington D.C. but slave trade would remain prohibited.
New Mexico and Utah would have no restrictions on slavery.
An act that set up Kansas and Nebraska as a state.
It also allowed for popular sovereignty to decide whether or not slavery would be allowed.
The importance of this was it gave the people the right to vote for how slavery would be set up.
Also, it started "Bleeding Kansas" and created the Republican Party.
Dred Scott Decision
This case stated that all slaves were property not citizens. This meant that Scott had no right to sue. This case was mainly to solve the issues of slavery.
The party was created in the Midwest due to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The party disagreed with the act and was originally a sectional moral protest against the gains of slavery.
Successful in guiding the Union to Victory and abolishing slavery.
Election of 1860
Democrats met in Charleston, South Carolina April 1860 to select their candidate for president. Northern democrats felt Stephen Douglas had a better chance to defeat Black Republicans
16th president of the United States. Served from March 1861 until his assassination April 1865.
He abolished slavery and led the union to victory. He also signed a tariff legislation that offered to American industries and signed a bill that charted the 1st Transcontinental Railroad.
Allowed the Southern states to balk into the Union.
Reconstruction had officially provided freedmen with equal rights under the Constitution.
U.S. Congress advocated emancipation of slaves before and during civil war, insisted harsh penalties for the South following war during the Reconstruction.
Prominent leaders of Radical Republican: Thaddeus Stevens.
After the war, the South was in complete disarray. The North went easy on them and instead of treating them like the defeated, they treated them as friends again (with hardly any punishment for war, succession, slavery or racism). Reconstruction was as it sounds, the reconstruction of all aspects of the South, such as economy, government and basic order.
13th Amendment: Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. Many slaves were declared free by the President.
It paved the way for state and federal laws that would define citizenship and provide equality under the law.
14th Amendment:Guarantees citizenship to all people born or nationalized in the USA. Prevents states from denying life, liberty, and property.
It is an expansion of the fifth amendment, and was intended to override the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision of 1858 which stated that African-Americans were ot entitled to basic civil rights.
15th Amendment: No state can take away the right to vote based on race, color, or previous enslavement for African Americans.
The 15th amendment finally came to truly have an affect when the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed by Congress to enforce the amendment.
Nativism is the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.