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Transcript of Special Populations
to meet maximum potential needing to relearn skills and abilities or adjusting existing functions to meet age related development expectations Types of Disabilities Hearing Visual Deaf Hearing Impaired Sensory Deficits sensory deficits learning disabilities developmental disabilities mental illness physical disabilities communication disorders chronic illness complete loss in sensitivity to sound reduction in sensitivity to sound "...deaf individuals will always rely
on their other senses for information input, especially their sense of sight. For patient education to be effective, then, communication must be visible"
(Bastable, 2008, pg. 344). How do we communicate with the Deaf and hearing impaired? Sign language
Lipreading Written Materials Verbalization by the client Sound augmentation
Telecommunication When communicating with the Deaf
and Hearing impaired: Be natural
Avoid being stiff
Do not overarticulate
Use simple sentences
Get person's attention before initiating conversation
Face the person, get closer
Do not walk and talk at the same time
Avoid "head bobbing"
Avoid talking while chewing gum
Avoid standing in front of a bright light "'Sight is an important indicator of health and quality of life'" (Bastable, 2008, pg. 347). Visual Impairment = some form or degree of visual difficulty (partial and total blindness) Macular degeneration
Diabetic retinopathy Education Tips: Use magnifying lenses/enlarged print Include other senses- be tactile Will not pick up on non-verbal cues Be very descriptive PROPER LIGHTING audiotapes/verbal repetition Learning Disabilities Attention deficit disorder Integrative processing disorder Memory deficits Visual/auditory perceptual disabilities Minimal brain dysfunction Developmental language problems Myths: 1. Children are labeled "learning disabled" because they can't learn 2. Children who have a learning disability must be spoken to more slowly. 3. Children who are learning disabled just have to try harder. 4. Children outgrow their disabilities. 5. Children with learning disabilities should be treated like everyone else. 6. Nearly all children with learning disabilities are boys. What's your point? Teaching methods are individualized and should
target the specific disability being dealt with. No disabled learner is alike. Developmental Disabilities "Parental response to the birth of a child with a disability is similar to the grieving process experienced by families after the death of a loved one...Why me?" (Bastable, 2008, pg. 359). Substantial limitations in at least 3 of the following major life activities:
receptive and expressive language learning
capacity for independent living
economic self-sufficiency Remember: Tone of voice and facial expression are more important than the words being spoken. Positive behavior = great praise Simple tasks with simple directions Give rewards! Mental Illness "Until about 1886, the mentally ill were restrained in iron manacles" (Bastable, 2008, pg. 360) Teaching the mentally ill: Educating the mentally ill requires the same basic principles for
teacing those who are mentally healthy Use small brief words Repeat information over and over Write down information on index cards Keep sessions short and frequent Involve family during teaching sessions Set goals and determine outcomes Just because someone
is mentally ill does not mean
they can't learn. Pysical Disorders Spinal Cord Injury Brain Injury 1. Readiness to learn is imperative. 2. Physical strength is linked to
mental strength for learning. 3. Involve family and caregivers 1. There will be changes in communication, cognition-perception, and behavior. 2. Teaching should be focused on adjusting to each barrier. Communication Disorders "Communication is a universal process by which
human beings exhange ideas, impart feelings and express
needs" (Bastable, 2008) Aphasia Dysarthria Laryngectomy Chronic Illness Non verbal communication Encouragement Usually secondary to stroke Comprehension is difficult Be patient and consistent Secondary to degenerative disorders Unintelligible speech Communication techniques:
electronic voice synthesizer
communication board Always convey the part of the message
you don't understand. Secondary to cancer Communication: Esophageal speech Electronic voice synthesizer Facial expressions Language boards Can be frustrating Every aspect of life is affected Do not label patient as noncompliant May feel "out of control"
and not receptive to learning THE END