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Transcript of julian rotter
b. People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make.
2. a. One of the major reasons why we have wars is because people don't take enough interest in politics.
b. There will always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them.
3. a. In the long run people get the respect they deserve in this world.
b. Unfortunately, an individual's worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he tries.
4. a. The idea that teachers are unfair to students is nonsense.
b. Most students don't realize the extent to which their grades are influenced by accidental happenings.
5. a. Without the right breaks one cannot be an effective leader.
b. Capable people who fail to become leaders have not taken advantage of their opportunities. 6. a. No matter how hard you try some people just don't like you.
b. People who can't get others to like them don't understand how to get along with others.
7. a. I have often found that what is going to happen will happen.
b. Trusting to fate has never turned out as well for me as making a decision to take a definite course of action.
8. a. In the case of the well prepared student there is rarely if ever such a thing as an unfair test.
b. Many times exam questions tend to be so unrelated to course work that studying in really useless.
9. a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work, luck has little or nothing to do with it.
b. Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.
10. a. The average citizen can have an influence in government decisions.
b. This world is run by the few people in power, and there is not much the little guy can do about it. 11. a. When I make plans, I am almost certain that I can make them work.
b. It is not always wise to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow.
12. a. In my case getting what I want has little or nothing to do with luck.
b. Many times we might just as well decide what to do by flipping a coin.
13. a. Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was lucky enough to be in the right place first.
b.Getting people to do the right thing depends upon ability, luck has little or nothing to do with it.
14. a. As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us are the victims of forces we can neither understand, nor control.
b. By taking an active part in political and social affairs the people can control world events.
15. a. Most people don't realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by accidental happenings.
b. There really is no such thing as "luck." 16. a. It is hard to know whether or not a person really likes you.
b. How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you are.
17. a. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones.
b. Most misfortunes are the result of lack of ability, ignorance, laziness, or all three.
18. a. With enough effort we can wipe out political corruption.
b. It is difficult for people to have much control over the things politicians do in office.
19. a. Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give.
b. There is a direct connection between how hard 1 study and the grades I get.
20. a. Many times I feel that I have little influence over the things that happen to me.
b. It is impossible for me to believe that chance or luck plays an important role in my life. 21. a. People are lonely because they don't try to be friendly.
b. There's not much use in trying too hard to please people, if they like you, they like you.
22. a. What happens to me is my own doing.
b. Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over the direction my life is taking.
23. a. Most of the time I can't understand why politicians behave the way they do.
b. In the long run the people are responsible for bad government on a national as well as on a local level. by Lovely M. Felipe
PSY 643 Advanced Theories of Personality
© Sept. 8, 2012 JULIAN ROTTER (1916- )
Cognitive Social Learning Theory OVERVIEW Rotter's Theory Social learning theory rests on five basic hypotheses: 1. Humans interact with
their meaningful environments. People’s reaction to environmental stimuli depends on the meaning or importance that they attach to an event. He described personality as a relatively stable set of potential for responding to situations in a particular way. Therefore, he saw the personality as always changeable. 2. Human personality is learned. Thus, it follows that personality is not set or determined at any particular age of development; instead, it can be changed or modified as long as people are capable of learning. 3. Personality has a basic unity. People’s personalities possess relative stability.
People learn to evaluate new experiences on the basis of previous reinforcement. This relatively consistent evaluation leads to greater stability and unity of personality. 4. Motivation is goal directed. He rejects the notion that people are primarily motivated to reduce tension or seek pleasure, insisting that the best explanation for human behavior lies in people’s expectations that their behaviors are advancing them toward goals. 5. People are capable of anticipating events. People are most strongly reinforced by behaviors that move them in the direction of anticipated goals. Rotter's Life -born in Brooklyn, New York on October 22, 1916 -third son of Jewish immigrant parents -Rotter recalled that he fit Adler’s description of a highly competitive “fighting” youngest child. -Although his parents observed the Jewish religion and customs, they were not very religious. -As an elementary school and high school student, he was an avid reader and by his junior year had read nearly every book of fiction in the local public library. ...and he came across with these books: He was particularly impressed by Adler and Freud and soon returned for more. -1930, an activist (so he was 14yrs. old back then!) and very much concerned with social injustice and economic depression. -1937, received his BA major in chemistry at Brooklyn College (at 21 yrs.old) -1938, received his MA at the University of Iowa Graduate School in Psychology, (22 tapos na ng MA wow!) -After receiving his MA, he completed an internship in clinical psychology at Worcester State Hospital in Massachusetts,
where he met his future wife, Clara Barnes. Their union was blessed with two children: Jean and Richard. -1941, earned his PhD in Psychology at Indiana University (at 25, doctorate na!) - Influences include: Alfred Adler and Kurt Lewin -At the advent of World War II, he was drafted into the army and spent more than 3 years as an army psychologist. -1946, together with George Kelly, built a clinical psychology program at Ohio State University That same year Rotter accepted a position as clinical psychologist at Norwich State Hospital in Connecticut, where his duties included training interns and assistants from the University of Connecticut and Wesleyan University. -1949, an active participant in the Boulder Conference which defined the training for doctoral- level clinical psychologists.
*He stated that psychologists must be trained in the psychology department, and not under the supervision of a psychiatrist Publications and Scales:
-1954, published Social Learning and Clinical Psychology
-1964, published Clinical Psychology
-1966, devised Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank
-1967, devised Interpersonal Trust Scale
-1972, co-authored The Application of a Social Learning Theory of Personality with June Chance and Jerry Phares
-1975, co-authored Personality with D.J. Hochreich
-1982, published The Development and Application of Social Theory (a compilation of his most important theoretical and research works) -1963, became a full-time professor at the University of Connecticut
-1987, retired as professor but continued to be actively involved in writing and research work in the social learning area (so, 25 years in teaching! Wow!) -1988, received the prestigious APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award
-1989, received the Distinguished Contribution to Clinical Training Award from the Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology Personality
Development Role of Parents Parents play a crucial role in a child’s development. Children learn different expectancies for success and failure in various situations. The parents are perceived and evaluated in the same way and serve as conditioned reinforcers (e.g. parents’ statement of recognition, dominance, love and affection can shape their children’s behavior).
Parental neglect or rejection tends to develop low expectations and children may develop hostility and aggression. While overly protected and pampered children are more likely to enter school with high expectations. Role of Social Agents (school, peers, community) The developmental process involves the acquisition and modification of expectancies and reinforcement values through contact with different socialization agents like peers, school, or community. The Six
Needs 1. Recognition Status Recognition-status includes the need to excel in those things that a person regards as important: for example, school, sports, occupation, hobbies, and physical appearance. It also includes the need for socioeconomic status and personal prestige. The need to be recognized by others and to achieve status in their eyes is a powerful need for most people. 2. Dominance the need to control the behavior of others This need includes any set of behaviors directed at gaining power over the lives of friends, family, colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. Talking colleagues into accepting your ideas is a specific example of dominance. 3. Independence the need to be free of the domination of others It includes those behaviors aimed at gaining the freedom to make decisions, to rely on oneself, and to attain goals without the help of others.
Example is child studying on his own, without the help of parents or tutor. 4. Protection-Dependency a set of needs nearly opposite independence. This category includes the needs to be cared for by others, to be protected from frustration and harm, and to satisfy the other need categories. A specific example of protection-dependency is asking your spouse to stay home from work and take care of you when you are ill. 5. Love and Affection Most people have strong needs for love and affection: that is, needs for acceptance by others that go beyond recognition and status to include some indications that other people have warm, positive feelings for them. The needs for love and affection include those behaviors aimed toward securing friendly regard, interest, and devotion from others. Doing favors for others in anticipation of receiving verbal expressions of positive regard and gratitude might be an example of this need. 6. Physical Comfort is perhaps the most basic need because other needs are learned in relation to it. This need includes those behaviors aimed at securing food, good health, and physical security. Other needs are learned as an outgrowth of needs for pleasure, physical contact, and well-being. Turning on the air conditioner or hugging another person or pet are examples of the need for physical comfort. Basic Concept
of Social Learning Expectancy is the subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome. Having "high" or "strong" expectancies means the individual is confident the behavior will result in the outcome.
Having low expectancies means the individual believes it is unlikely that his or her behavior will result in reinforcement.
* If the outcomes are equally desirable, we will engage in the goal we know we most likely hit. example of expectancy: Freedom of Movement refers to the degree of expectancy that we will attain a given reinforcer as a result of certain behavior High expectancy leads to high freedom of movement; low expectancy leads to low freedom of movement.
A person with high freedom of movement anticipates success in achieving goals, but a person with low freedom of movement anticipates failure or punishment •Reinforcement Value this refers to a person’s individual degree or order of preference for the outcome of our behavior. Simply put, it refers to the importance we attach to different activities. Things we want to happen, that we are attracted to, have a high reinforcement value.
Things we don't want to happen, that we wish to avoid, have a low reinforcement value.
*If the likelihood of achieving reinforcement is the same, we will engage in the activity that is most important to us. example of reinforcement value: Minimal Goal Level is the lowest level of potential reinforcement in particular situation that we perceive as satisfactory example: *Expectancy and Reinforcement Value
are independent from each other. example: •Behavior Potential is the likelihood of engaging in a particular behavior in a specific situation.
In any given situation, there are multiple behaviors one can engage in. For each possible behavior, there is a behavior potential.
*The individual will exhibit whichever behavior has the highest potential. Behavior Potential depends on two factors: a) the reinforcement value and b) expectancy
Behavior Potential= Reinforcement Value x Expectancy The presence of a multiplication sign has a vital implication.
When either the reinforcement value or expectancy is low, the likelihood that the person will engage in a behavior will be low.
Thus, even the most valued reinforce will not motivate us to perform a behavior we believe is unattainable. In the same way, an easily obtainable behavior will not motivate us when it has no value for us. •Psychological Situation Rotter believes it is always important to keep in mind that different people interpret the same situation differently. A person’s unique past experiences and current situational cues affect behavior. Locus of Control Locus of Control refers to a person’s view of the source of his or her outcome Internal Locus of Control
is the belief that outcomes are the results of our own efforts and resources. External Locus of Control
is the belief that outcomes are due to extraneous forces over which we have no control. Interpersonal Trust Interpersonal Trust is “a generalized expectancy held by an individual that the word, promise, oral or written statement of another individual or group can be relied on” Rotter summarized results of studies that indicate that people who score high in interpersonal trust, as opposed to those who score low, are
(1) less likely to lie;
(2) probably less likely to cheat or steal;
(3) more likely to give others a second chance;
(4) more likely to respect the rights of others;
(5) less likely to be unhappy, conflicted, or maladjusted;
(6) somewhat more likable and popular;
(7) more trustworthy;
(8) neither more nor less gullible; and
(9) neither more nor less intelligent Psychotherapy Although Rotter adopts a problem-solving approach to psychotherapy, he does not limit his concern to quick solutions to immediate problems. His interest is more long range, involving a change in the patient’s orientation toward life. 1. Changing Goals
Many patients are unable to solve life’s problems because they are pursuing skewed or distorted goals. The role of the therapist is to help these patients understand the faulty nature of their goals and to teach them constructive means of striving toward realistic goals. a)First, two or more important goals may be in conflict.
b)A second source of problems is a destructive goal.
c)Third, many people find themselves in trouble because they set their goals too high and are continually frustrated when they cannot reach or exceed them. 2. Eliminating Low Expectancies
a) First, they may lack the skills or information needed to successfully strive toward their goals.
b) A second source of low freedom of movement is faulty evaluation of the present situation.
c) Finally, low freedom of movement can spring from inadequate generalization. Thank you! Evaluation of Rotter's Theory It had generated both quantity and quality of research. For example, Rotter’s concept of locus of control has been, and continues to be, one of the most widely researched topics in psychological literature. View of human nature is optimistic.
Rotter believe that people can be taught constructive strategies for problem solving and that they are capable of learning new behaviors at any point in life.