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Transcript of Matter
What's the matter? It's matter. Matter is anything and everything that has mass and takes up space. Chemistry is the study of matter, and chemists are people who perform chemistry. Some specific chemists can be called "cooks".
Properties of Matter
Matter has many different properties, from soft to hard, from short to long, etc., These properties are based on many things. For one, it depends on its makeup, and if it is a substance or not. A substance (VOCAB) is a chemical that is pure. An example of a substance is Mercury. You are NOT a substance. This is because you are essentially an animal filled with blood, sperm, ova, etc., and all of these can differ. For example, my blood type is B+. Yours is probably different.
Anyway, every form of matter has 2 kinds of properties-physical and chemical. A physical property is a property of an element that can be observed without changing it into another element. For example, a physical property of water is that it is wet.
In contrast, chemical properties are properties of pure substances that only show themselves when a chemical reaction occurs. For example, a chemical property of hydrogen is that it is combustible, and reacts with oxygen to form water.
States of matter
Matter comes in many different forms. The most important are plasma, solid, liquid and gas. Interestingly enough, the textbook does not deem this information important. The state of matter a substance is in depends on the amount of energy it contains.Anyhoo, let's go over the states of matter almost nobody cares about.
Glass- no seriously, glass is actually its own state of matter. Like solids, glass is rigid; but its structure at the molecular level resembles liquids more.
Bose-Einstein Condensate- Back in the 20s, Einstein an Indian man named Satyendra Bose (bet he was bullied as a kid) came up with something called a Bose-Einstein Condensate. It's basically a chemical that has been cooled so much that instead of becoming just a solid, it instead condenses and becomes one, big, supersolid. They are no longer a mass of atoms bouncing off of each other. They are essentially one, big, super atom. Unfortunately, you can't try this at home, since you need to go very, extremely close (a couple billionths) to 0 Kelvin, the lowest possible temperature.
Energy and Matter
What's energy? Well, energy is the ability to do work or cause change. It has many different forms. Temperature is the measure of the average energy of random particles in motion. The amount of energy that particles have determine their state, like solid, liquid, gas, etc.
Thermal energy is the total energy of all the particles in an object. It always flows from hotter objects to cooler objects. Many chemical changes involve thermal energy, like exothermic and endothermic change.
Chemical energy is the energy stored between the bonds between atoms. During a chemical change, the bonds break apart and form new bonds. Chemical changes often involve Chemical energy transforming into Thermal energy,
Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy that travels as waves. Things that classify as electromagnetic energy are light, microwaves, radio waves, gamma rays, beta rays, and alpha waves. Chemical changes can give off EM energy, for example, light bulbs lighting up. EM energy can also CAUSE chemical changes
Electrical energy is the energy of electrically charged particles moving from one place to another,
Like every other state of matter, solids can be quite different. They can be hard, soft, flexible, etc., but there are 2 physical properties that define them: they keep their shape. They don't have their atoms flying about like liquids or gases; rather, they stay neatly bunched together. Of course, that isn't to say that solids don't move at all. The electrons still orbit the nucleus, and the atoms still vibrate slightly. Solids have more energy than BECs, but less than liquids, gasses, and plasma.
There are 2 kinds of solids. Crystals are solids whose molecules fit together in a repeating pattern. Crystals form whenever a liquid hardens, and, in doing so, gather together while they stabilize.
Amorphous solids are solids whose molecules are not organized in a lattice pattern. Essentially they are all solids that aren't crystals.
Changes in Matter
Matter changes in many different ways. Physical changes are changes in appearance that do not change the chemical makeup of a substance. For example, if you make a rock into a sculpture, it is still essentially a rock. A very pretty rock, to be fair, but still a rock. Changes in state are also a physical change. Sure, your water is now ice, but it's still H2O.
Chemical changes are changes in a substance that create new substances. In some chemical changes, one substance is changed into many other substances. In others, many substances are changed into one, like with Fe and O. People are filled with chemical changes, like cellular respiration (you better know this).
Although some chemical changes make substances seem to disappear (decomposition, burning things, etc.,) they actually don't. A scientist named Antoine Lavosier discovered in the 70s (17) that after a chemical change, the mass of the substance he tested with stayed the same, leading to people coming up with the law of conservation of matter, which refers to the fact that matter can never truly be destroyed. Another name for it is the law of conservation of mass, since mass is essentially a measure of how much matter is in one place.
Flourine Uranium Carbon Potassium Bismuth Technetium Helium Sulfur.
The glow of neon lights are a physical property
A chemical property of hipsters is that no matter how long they are exposed to intelligent people, they will not undergo a reaction into a normal person. They eventually undergo nuclear decay into beatniks.
Compounds And Mixtures
A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements in a set ratio. Chemical formulas are used to represent the elements and ratios that make up compounds. If you have different ratios, you get different compounds. For example, take CO2 and CO1. CO2 is essential for plant life. CO1 kills you.
A compound is much different than the elements that make it up. For example, H and O are both incredibly flammable substances, but when they are combined (by burning H) you get H2O, which is essential for life.
Almost everything you see everyday is a mixture. Dirt, trees, even people. A mixture is two or more substance that are in the same place but are not chemically bonded. Each substance keeps keeps its individual properties, and they are not in a set ratio. Heterogenous mixtures are mixtures you can see the individual parts of. In homogenous mixtures, you cannot. Mixtures are rather simple to separate, compared to compounds.
a side effect of being from the 70s is looking like a complete tool.
the thinker, one of the prettiest rocks ever.
Review of Introduced Concepts
1. What's the difference between chemical and physical properties?
2. Hydrogen explodes when it is near heat. Is this a chemical or physical property?
3. Noble gases are very nonreactive. Do they lack chemical properties?
4. What's the difference between heterogenous and homogenous mixtures?
5. Is seawater a mixture? Why?
6. If I stirred bleach into water, and offered it to you, how could you prove to me that it was not safe to drink? (kaff distillation kaff)
Yet another review
1. What kind of physical changes can you perform on a stick?
2. Why is the melting of ice a physical change?
3. How come using electrolysis on water is considered a chemical change, while freezing it is not?
4. Why does a rusted nail contain more mass than a non-rusted one?
Liquids are a state of matter where the matter in question has a definite volume, but no definite shape. Like gases, liquids fill whatever container they are put in; however, unlike gases, liquids are very badly affected by that pesky little thing called gravity. This is why liquids have a flat top when put in a container. Liquids have more energy than BEC's and solids, but less than gasses and plasma.
When I talk about gases, I am not talking about the putrid smelling funk that comes out of your behind after eating at Taco Bell. Nor am I referring to gasoline. Gas is a state of matter where matter has no defined shape, and no defined volume. Gasses can and will fill up any container they are placed inside, no question about it. This is because unlike solids and liquids, the molecules in gases are pumped up on energy , incredibly spread out and randomly colliding with each other/ and or their container. You can achieve a similar effect by placing several hundred drunk people in a room. A final important physical property of gases is the fact that they are incredibly easy to compress, at least compared to solids and liquids. When you open a container of compressed gas, it makes a hissing sound. This comes from the gas quickly moving from a place of higher concentration (The container) to a place of lower concentration, in a process called (blank) Gases have more energy than BEC's, liquids, and solids, but less than plasma.
Plasma is the fourth, final fundamental state of matter. If BEC's are supersolids, then plasma is a super gas. Plasma is essentially a gas (no definite volume nor shape) that has had its electrons be so energized that they FLY OFF their nucleus, but still travel with it. Plasma is usually generated when something heats up to an incredible heat, such as during the formation of suns, or when lightning strikes. Interestingly enough, plasma actually isn't taught about until high school, even though it's one of THE most common states of matter in the universe. Plasma is the state of matter with the most amount of energy in the universe.
End of the Prezi: The final slide/review
How many kinds of properties do every form of matter have, and what are they called? What are the differences between them?
What in the world is a substance, and what are the simplest substances?
How do the properties of compounds relate to the elements that form them? What in the world is a compound?
How do mixtures relate to the chemicals that form them? What is a mixture?
What in the world are chemical and physical changes? Do they have sub-categories? If so, name and define them.
How many kinds of energy are there, and what are they?
What happens during a chemical change?
Name the 4 fundamental states of matter, and say each of their one defining features that separate them from other states of matter.
What is are the 2 sub-categories of solids?
Imagine this guy, except thousands of him in a room.
This is not a bong.
These nerds unfortunately do not have hot wives.
If you don't know what this is, you should go back to 7th grade.
Breakdancing Break, because if Ms. Romano can do it, so can I. (Yes, that is Mr. Mupas)