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HUMAN

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Andrea C

on 10 January 2014

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Transcript of HUMAN

POPULATION
Jessica Gallant & Andrea Caruso

Summary
HUMAN

Do you think that renewable resources will eventually become nonrenewable based on our large population competing for limited resources?

We have concluded that:
Earth’s lifespan is being shortened so that our lifespan as individuals can be lengthened.

In order to shrink population size and improve quality of life, the birth rate must decrease and the death rate must increase. However it is unethical to increase the mortality rate, and since it is difficult to control population growth, we should instead live
satisfactory
ways of life, versus
extravagant
. We should manage population growth in a sustainable way and allow everyone equal access to the
essentials
of survival.

It is important that we as individuals take initiative and work towards doing our part for our Earth, our home.

Population surges have been tied with cultural innovations such as
agriculture
,
industry
, and
transportation
. These innovations helped to improve the amount of
food
and
resources
available to people.
Scientific
and
technological
breakthroughs including the discovery of
medicine
and
sanitation
, greatly
improved human health
. This led to a
downward trend in the mortality rate,
and all of population began to have a
longer lifespan
.
Despite improvements to human health, these breakthroughs have come with a
large

ecological footprint
.
Humans use resources at a
faster
rate than they can be replenished. This creates
pollution
in the
air, water, soil, and land
; causing
climate change
.
Human activities such as
deforestation
and
manufacturing
are disrupting Earth’s natural
ecosystems
, as well as leading to the
extinction
of hundreds of species.
Since it is unethical to increase human mortality rate, it is important for individuals to make choices that will
better the environment,
such as riding a bike.

Reflection
Sanitation
Solutions
Demographers that study the human population identified four ways humans have avoided the affects of population regulating factors.
1. Early ancestors
***INCOMPLETE***
Because...
Discoveries of
1804
1927
1974
1960
10 AD
8000 BC
1 BILLION
5 MILLION
300 MILLION
1987
1999
2011
2050
2 BILLION
7 BILLION
6 BILLION
3 BILLION
5 BILLION
9 BILLION
4 BILLION
Human Population Throughout History
HOUSING
TRANSPORTATION
AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
WATER
AIR
LAND/SOIL
PLANTS & ANIMALS
Each day, 350,000 people are born and 150,000 die, increasing the Earth's population by 200,000 each day.
Population growth means more people competing for limited resources.
Continued population growth is inevitable because today’s children, who outnumber adults, will soon be mature and able to reproduce.

Age
0-14: Pre-reproductive
15-44: Reproductive
45+: Post-reproductive
Age
0-14: Pre-reproductive
15-44: Reproductive
45+: Post-reproductive
Developed Country
Developing Country
Developed vs. Developing Populations

Developed Countries
decreasing birth rate
the cost of supporting larger families discourages parents from having more children
birth control is available

Developing Countries
increasing birth rate
the demand for essential resources exceeds the supply because large populations utilize all resources resulting in a limited supply
lack of birth control
women have children at half the age of those in developed countries

In developed countries most women begin reproducing around age 32 mainly because of education. In developing countries, women begin reproducing around age 16.

Age of a Woman Developed Country Developing Country
16 -------- Mother
32 Mother Grandmother
48 Mother Great grandmother
64 Grandmother Great-great grandmother


After 32 years, women in developed countries will be giving birth to their first child, whereas women in developing countries will be new grandmothers at age 32. After 64 years, women in developed countries will be new grandmothers, whereas women in developing countries will be great-great grandmothers. Therefore,
developing countries grow much faster
than developed.


Canada expects to see a 1% growth rate in the next few years.
Europe has achieved zero population growth and demographers expect a decline.
African, Latin and Asian countries are expected to experience
huge
increases in their population in the next 20-25 years.

Historically, population grew slowly because resources were very limited, until some breakthroughs occurred.
Population surges have been tied with the following cultural innovations, that have provided us with better living conditions.

Going from hunting to agriculture...
•Domesticating animals for food increased food supplies, and population
•Raising livestock provided people who were living in areas that were not good for producing crops (rocky or steep ground) with another source of food
•This led from small mobile groups of hunter-gatherers to societies in permanent villages
•Led to development of food storage practices, resulting in surplus food production
Traditional agriculture
(natural)
•Human and animal labour, feed the farmers own family and make a little money for income
•20% of world food supply
NOW...
Industrialized agriculture
•Uses fossil fuels, water, machines, and synthetic pesticides to produce crops of livestock animals
•80% of world food supply


Industrial revolution saw the building of homes, and eventually people began to live in cleaner homes, building them out of different materials and no longer sleeping on dirt floors.
This improved hygiene and overall health leading to longevity.

Industrialization-
In the mid-eighteenth century (Industrial Revolution) food supplies increased because of fertilizers, pesticides, fast transportation, and food distribution.
It was the transition from hand production methods to the development of machines, tools, chemicals, improved efficiency of water power, and use of steam power.
These creations improved the lives of humans and allowed them to travel and generate electricity through the energy harnessed in fossil fuels.

Steam Engines during the industrial revolution increased productivity, transportation, and manufacturing.
Transportation increases the availability of products that improve lives through importing and exporting.


In the 19th century, there were several scientific advances leading to various discoveries. A downward trend in the mortality rate occurred and all of population began to have a longer lifespan.
These discoveries included
Medicine
Fertilizers
Fertilizers and pesticides (advances in chemistry) allowed farmers to increase food supply, and reduce labor needs.

This helped supply more food to a growing population.
Water Treatment- decreased spread of water borne diseases, and increased access to drinking water.

Sewage System and toilets- disposal of human feces in a much more hygienic way.

With access to clean water...an emphasis is placed on the
importance of hand washing and showering.

Modern hand sanitizers and cleaning supplies help eliminate harmful bacteria.

Food is wrapped in plastic and packaged, decreasing the spread of germs when food is handled.

The
cell theory
provided foundation for modern medicine.
Science and research has evolved, helping us live longer, and increasing our population.
Antibiotics
- decreased incidence of death from bacterial diseases.
The discovery of penicillin is historically significant because it was the first drug that was effective against many serious infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci bacteria.
Vaccines
(injection of deadly virus to create resistance)- decreased death and prevented viral disease.
Better nutrition
,
improved hygiene
,
safer workplaces
, and
limits on child labor

led to longer life
and improved public health.
Surgery
- science has provided us with the tools and technology that allow medical professionals to remove anything life-threatening from our bodies and improve our lives, helping us live longer.



PROBLEMS WITH THESE BREAKTHROUGHS
Humans are beginning to overpopulate the Earth, and Earth may not be able to sustain an increasing amount of people.
Carrying Capacity
: population that Earth can sustain. It is estimated to be
10 to 15 billion
people.
Earth does
not
have an unlimited carrying capacity and our natural resources are stressed.
Currently, we use
1.5

planets
to provide the resources we use and to absorb our waste. Therefore it takes Earth an extra
6 months
to regenerate what we use in a year.
Biocapacity
: a measure of an ecosystems ability to produce useful biological materials and to absorb waste materials created by humans.
Ecological Footprint
: the impact imposed on the environment by the demand for natural resources.
Our ecological footprint currently exceeds biocapacity, meaning that we are using resources at a
faster
rate than they can be replaced.
A
global hectare
refers to the amount of biologically productive land and water available per person on the planet
The world average biocapacity is
1.8
global hectares/person but the world ecological footprint in 2007 was
2.7
gha. Ontario’s was
8.4
gha.
HOW ARE WE DIRECTLY AFFECTING THE ENVIRONMENT?
ECOSYSTEMS
Air quality is a significant concern because of…
•Emissions from increased vehicle traffic
•Increased development and industrialization

Greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide) trap heat in the atmosphere. Increased amounts of greenhouse gases are raising the Earth’s temperature, increasing sea levels, and changing amounts of precipitation causing heatwaves, droughts, and heavy rainfall.

Pollution: man made from burning fossil fuels, garbage, etc.

A growing population has led to an increased demand of product which has led to an increase in industry, creating more pollution.

Pollution is created through food production:
-Grow (tractors, fertilizers)
-Process (industry)
-Package (plastic)
-Transport (gas)
-Refrigerate
-Cook all plant and animal food
10 units of non-renewable fossil fuel are needed to put 1 unit of food energy on the table

Species are becoming extinct due to shifting climate zones.
For every
1°C
rise in temperature, species are at a
higher
rate of extinction.
14
plants and
8
terrestrial animals supply
90%
of our global intake of calories.
2/3
of people survive primarily on wheat, rice and corn.
A dependence on a small amount of species for food shows a dramatic
reduction in biodiversity.
95 million
tonnes of fish are caught annually, and
45 million
tonnes are farmed.
Researchers believe that our fisheries will be depleted beyond our recovery.
500
plant & animal species are at risk in Canada
On a global scale:
•1141 mammals
•1222 birds
•423 reptiles
•1905 amphibians
•305 crustaceans
•424 insects are categorized as
extinct
or
endangered.


We dig deep into the ground for petroleum to make fuels, plastics, and other products. Ecosystem balance is so disrupted that living things that once thrived in a certain place can no longer get the resources they need to survive there.

For example- A person cuts down a tree to let more sunlight shine on a small garden.
Consequences:
-Birds and insects had used it for food, shelter, and nesting. Now the tree can no longer provide them with these resources.
-Insects, worms, and other organisms that lived in the tree’s roots can no longer get the resources they need to sustain them.
-The area around the garden is now fully exposed to sunlight instead of being shaded from it.
-This will change the way that the soil holds rainwater. Plants that grew well in shaded
conditions will die.

Activities & Their Impact on Ecosystems:

Construction
•Surface soil is removed, killing soil organisms and plants
•The shape or slope of the land is changed, resulting in different patterns for drainage of rainwater.
•Farmland that is taken over to build roads and buildings can no longer be used to grow crops and livestock.

Dam-Building
•The courses of rivers and streams are changed and land is flooded to create lakes in places where none existed before.
•Huge numbers of living things are killed and displaced.

Manufacturing & Consumption of goods
• Soil and plant life are removed to make space to build factories and landfill sites for the solid wastes that the factories produce.
• Factories consume energy to make products.
• Production process creates wastes that can enter and pollute air, water, and soil.
• Stores that sell goods consume energy to operate.
• The packaging, transportation, and consumption of goods generate wastes that must be disposed of.
• Disposal and recycling of wastes consumes energy.

Preserving topsoil is key to producing enough food to feed a growing population

Threats to soil causing lost fertility and/or desertification:

•Some soil erosion is caused by human activities including
farming, logging, construction, overgrazing by livestock, off road vehicle use, and deliberate burning of vegetation.

•60% of eroded soil ends up as sediment where it can
pollute water, kill fish and shellfish and clog lakes.


One method for keeping soil moist is irrigation which is channeling water to moisten land that does not receive enough rainfall.

How Earth’s land is damaged:
-
fertilizers
leading to an overuse of land
-land erosion from
deforestation
for housing
- loss of large areas of habitat for
agricultural
purposes
-the depletion of forests for
logging


As cities grow outward, pressure is put on land uses to produce food and provide shelter.
(More people require more food, and more people require more space to live.)

Bogs and wetlands are drained and converted into building sites, adding to the amount of impermeable surfaces and destroying habitats.

Sending solid waste to landfills leads to pollution and an inefficient use of land.

1/3 of people in developing countries live on land where there is
only enough food produced to feed them
, whereas we throw out a lot of our food.

Calculating agriculture's ecological footprint:
-Land used to raise crops and livestock (eliminated trees, which decrease amount of CO2 in the air)
-Fertilizers and pesticides that contaminate surrounding lands
-Space for waste disposal
-Water for irrigation and livestock
-Fossil fuels burned during food production (greenhouse gases into atmosphere)

Water is a renewable resource, yet the supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing as demands increase.

Environmental impact on water:
•Treating water has led to an overuse
•Fertilizers pollute water supply
•Impermeable surfaces such as asphalt and concrete reduce the grounds ability to absorb water
•Groundwater is polluted in urban development areas
•Recycling of water only works properly if we do not overload it with wastes or withdraw faster than replenished
•Oil extracted in oceans to fuel our vehicles can lead to an oil spill, harming underwater creatures (Example-
BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, 2010
)
•Air pollution can lead to acid rain, affecting our plants and our freshwater supply

Less than 1%
of all water on Earth is fresh water.

Litter: Great Pacific Garbage Patch is an island of garbage caught in the central North Pacific Ocean. This harms all underwater life.

Nuclear waste is from industrial, medical, and scientific processes that use radioactive material and places marine habitats in danger.
For example,
Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant, 2011.

After 2025, it is estimated that
1/3
of the population will face a water crisis.


How do we control our population and protect our environment?
Government
As Individuals
Some governments encourage birth control in an attempt to lower the birth rate, however this is unlawful in several countries.
China has the One-Child Policy in urban areas. Some individuals find this unethical because some women require forced abortions.
Green buildings have been created which use natural light and solar power
World leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in 2000, committing their nations to achieving the following goals by 2015:
-elimination of poverty and hunger
-universal education
-gender equality
-improved child health
-improved maternal health
-reduction in number of HIV/AIDS infections
-environmental sustainability
-global partnership
Do you think that this was realistic?
How we can save our planet-
•Burning less gasoline, using less electricity and water
•Choosing locally grown food conserves more energy and lessens ecological footprint
•Riding bicycles, purchasing hybrid cars, and walking
Thank you.
Full transcript