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Settling National Boundaries
Strong Nationalist who had a plan to strengthen and unify the country's different regions
1. Establish a protective tariff- a tax on imported goods that protect a nations businesses from foreign competition. This tariff in 1816 made European goods more expansive and encourage Americans to buy cheaper American made products.
2. Establish a national bank that would promote a single currency making trade easier. (most states had own currency) 1816 The second bank of the US was set up.
3. Improve the country's transportation system which were important for a strong economy.
Era of Good Feeling
As nationalism began to grow, people shifted their loyalty from state government to federal government.
Democratic Republic James Monroe won the presidency of 1816.
Important key supreme court cases occurred:
*McCulloch v Maryland (1819)
*Gibbons V Ogden (1824)
*Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
All these cases promoted a sense of national unity by strengthening the federal government.
The national spirit made US leaders want to define and expand the country's borders.
The Rush-Bagot Agreement limited each side's naval forces on the Great Lakes. In the convention of 1818, the two countries (US and Great Britain) set up the 49th parallel as the U.S.-Canadian border.
However, tension with Spain were tense. The two countries argued about the boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase.
As the same time nationalism was unifying the country, sectionalism was threatening to tear it apart.
Sectionalism: The loyalty to the interest of your own region or section of the country rather than to the nation as a whole.
Economic Changes created divisions within the states
*The south was relying more on cotton and slavery
*The northeast was based on manufacturing and trade
*The west settlers wanted cheap land and good transportation.
Supreme Court Cases
McCulloch v Maryland: The state of Maryland wanted to tax its branch of the national bank. If this tax was allowed, the states could claim to have power over the federal government. The federal government ruled that a state could not tax a national bank. Also Maryland stated that the congress had no power to create a bank but the Court ruled it did.
Gibbons V Odgen
Steamship operators argued over shipping rights on the Hudson River in NY and NJ
The court ruled that interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government, not the state government.
Sectionalism became a major issue when Missouri wanted Statehood in 1817.
People living in Missouri wanted Slavery.
Even balance in the U.S. (11 v 11)
Henry Clay and The Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Kept balance in the U.S. and called for the ban of slavery from the Louisiana Territory north of the 36'30', Missouri's southern border.
The Threat of Sectionalism
The Monroe Doctrine
The nation felt threatened not only by sectionalism but by events elsewhere.
In Latin America several countries had successfully fought for their independence from Spain and Portugal.
European Monarchies planned to help Spain regain control of these colonies.
If this happened, U.S. government feared that the country would be in danger.
Russia also entered Alaska in 1784.
In December 1823, President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine.
Stated that the Americas were closed to further colonization.
The Monroe Doctrine also served as a threat to European nations to stay away.
"Dangerous to our peace and safety"