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Transactional to Transformal Leadership

Lerning to share the Vision!

Patricia Cardoso

on 2 July 2010

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Transcript of Transactional to Transformal Leadership

6 Human needs 1. Certainty/Comfort.

We all want comfort. And much of this comfort comes from certainty. Of course there is no ABSOLUTE certainty, but we want certainty the car will start, the water will flow from the tap when we turn it on and the currency we use will hold its value. 2.Variety.

At the same time we want certainty, we also crave variety. Paradoxically, there needs to be enough UNcertainty to provide spice and adventure in our lives. 3. Significance.

Deep down, we all want to be important. We want our life to have meaning and significance. I can imagine no worse a death than to think my life didn't matter. 4. Connection/Love.

It would be hard to argue against the need for love. We want to feel part of a community. We want to be cared for and cared about. 5. Growth.

There could be some people who say they don't want to grow, but I think they're simply fearful of doing so—or perhaps NOT doing so. To become better, to improve our skills, to stretch and excel may be more evident in some than others, but it's there. 6. Contribution.

The desire to contribute something of value—to help others, to make the world a better place than we found it is in all of us. “A winner never quits and a quitter never wins!” “A single arrow is easily broken, but not ten in a bundle.
Japanese proverb” “Coming together is a beginning.
Keeping together is progress.
Working together is success.
- Henry Ford” "Leaders do the right things, while managers do things right!" From Transactional to Transformational Leadership:
Learning to Share the Vision

Author: Bernard M. Bass “Now I’m the voice.
I’ll lead, not follow.
I’ll believe, not doubt.
I’ll create, not destroy.

I am a Leader!
Defy the odds, set a new standard…

STEP UP!” Napolean declared that an army of rabits commanded by a lion could do better than an army of lions commanded by a rabbit! Rommel, the Desert Fox
1941-1942 Theory to Pratical! Entrega de 300 produtos em 24 horas.

A criação do "Mito".
Leading by Example Má comunicação ->

perdeu-se uma excelente programadora! Quase Falência - Ano de 2002 While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time had described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. Yes, We can! Throughout history, people have tried to say what makes a good leader

As early as 500 B.C., Confucius listed the virtues (de) of effective leaders.

Four were key to his beliefs:
• Jen (love)
• Li (proper conduct)
• Xiao (piety)
• Zhang rong (the doctrine of the mean)
Theories of Leadership in the 20th Century

Barnard (1938) suggested the functions of a leader are both managerial and emotional functions, respectively:

• Cognitive functions include guiding, directing, and constraining choices and actions.

• Cathectic functions include emotional and motivational aspects of goal-setting, and developing faith and commitment to a larger moral purpose.
This is similar to Aristotle’s view of pathos, ethos, and logos, according to which a leader must:

1. Build relationships with those who are led
2. Advocate a moral vision
3 Persuade by logic to manage actions.
Over the last seventy years, there have been six main schools of leadership theory (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003; Handy, 1982; Partington, 2003):

1. The trait school

2. The behavioral or style school

3. The contingency school

4. The visionary or charismatic school (Bass)

5. The emotional intelligence school

6. The competency school. Assumptions
People are motivated by reward and punishment.
Social systems work best with a clear chain of command.
When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager.
The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.

The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate's manager) gets authority over the subordinate.
Transactional Leadership Transactional Leadership The main limitation is the assumption of 'rational man', a person who is largely motivated by money and simple reward, and hence whose behavior is predictable. The underlying psychology is Behaviorism, including the Classical Conditioning of Pavlov and Skinner's Operant Conditioning. These theories are largely based on controlled laboratory experiments (often with animals) and ignore complex emotionalfactors and social values.

In practice, there is sufficient truth in Behaviorism to sustain Transactional approaches. This is reinforced by the supply-and-demand situation of much employment, coupled with the effects of deeper needs, as in Maslow's Hierarchy. When the demand for a skill outstrips the supply, then Transactional Leadership often is insufficient, and other approaches are more effective.
Passive management-by-exception

intervening with his or her group only when procedures and standards for accomplishing tasks are not being met.
"If it ain't broken, don't fix it.“
We need more ... We deserve more Charismatic Leadership Transformational Leadership Assumptions
Awareness of task importance motivates people.
A focus on the team or organization produces better work.
Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader.

He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers:
Increasing their awareness of task importance and value.
Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.
Activating their higher-order needs.
Charisma is seen as necessary, but not sufficient, for example in the way that charismatic movie stars may not make good leaders. Two key charismatic effects that transformational leaders achieve is to evoke strong emotions and to cause identification of the followers with the leader. This may be through stirring appeals. It may also may occur through quieter methods such as coaching and mentoring.
Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components:
Idealized influence
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration
...and three moral aspects:
The moral character of the leader.
The ethical values embedded in the leader’s vision, articulation, and program (which followers either embrace or reject).
The morality of the processes of social ethical choice and action that leaders and followers engage in and collectively pursue.
Bass (1990) developed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) to test transactional, transformational, and non-transactional laissez-faire leadership style.

It is now the most widely used leadership assessment questionnaire.
Dulewicz and Higgs’ questionnaire removes the weaknesses identified within the original version of MLQ, and provides for the broadest coverage in assessing leadership and context simultaneously.

These items cover:
• Job satisfaction
• Realism
• Commitment to requisite change and to the organization
• Understanding the need for change
• Change faced by the organization.
The Better You Understand Yourself+The Better You Understand Others=The More Effectively You Will Influence People!


Trabalho feito por:
João Martins
Paulo Faria
Ricardo Teixeira What Is Leadership?

Leadership is a process of getting things done through people.
Leadership is a marathon, not a sprint...
Conclusions It is na emotional process wich by its nature can create bonds between individuals and therefore make rational decisions difficult or wrong

In a well established and stable organisation transformational actions can cause entropy

How can transformational Leadership be used in na organization where finantial benefits are only recognized for management positions? How is it possible to be legitimate and transparent?

Employees with stronger family ties are more available to create transformational relationships, or do they prefer transactional leardship style?
Would it be better a transformational leardship style with less qualyfied employess ?

In Europe, where generally speaking, conduct rules are vallued more than people, will transformational leadership have a significant impact ?

Even tough studies exist that indicate better results with transformationl leadership, that doesn’t mean that they are the more adequate method to adopt.

The kind of leadership to use will always have to be assesed in a case-to-case approach.
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