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The Beginning of Genetics

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Joel Hickey

on 19 November 2015

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Transcript of The Beginning of Genetics

The Birth of Hereditary Science
Gregor Johann Mendel
Austrian monk.
Lived from 1822 to 1884.
Studied science and mathematics at the University of Vienna.
Taught high school and maintained a garden in which he performed his experiments.
Work was unappreciated at the time, rediscovered in 1900.
Now known as the "Father of modern Genetics"
Mendel's Experiments
At first, Mendel wanted to study just one trait at a time.

Crossing two parents to study just one contrasting trait (crossing purple flowers with white flowers, for example) is called a *MONOHYBRID CROSS*.

Mendel developed a 3-step procedure for his experiment. Each step involved breeding another generation of plants. a *GENERATION* is all of the offspring from a particular group of parents.
Examples
Wolves were the first animals domesticated by humans. Selective breeding has led to the many modern dog breeds we have today.
Mendel's Results
Mendel always found that one trait disappeared in the F1 generation.

The trait that disappeared in the F1 generation would reappear in the F2 generation in about 1/4 of the offspring

Mendel's greatest contribution to genetics was in his explanation for why this is.
The Origin of Genetics
Why Use Pea Plants?
A Curious Thing...
Interest in Heredity
Heredity is the passing of traits from one generation to the next.

The study of heredity is now referred to as *GENETICS*

Humans have been intentionally breeding organisms for at least 10,000 years.
Further Examples
We Domesticate and Breed Plants, too!
Many species of plant have been bred to be more hardy, to grow in more places, to be easier to eat, and to yield more food.
Mendel maintained a garden of pea plants.

Some plants had purple flowers and some had white flowers.

He noticed that when he selectively bred his plants, some characteristics, like white flowers, would disappear from one generation and reappear in the next.

These characteristics seemed to "skip generations".

He was determined to find out why.
Mendel loved gardening, and it turns out that his pea plants were ideal for his experiments for a few reasons.
Contrasting Traits
Traits are specific physical characteristics that an organism inherits from it's parents.
Easy to Control
Pea plants are usually able to self-pollinate, because each flower has male and female parts.

Mendel removed the male parts from some plants and manually cross pollinated the plants that he wanted to breed.

He had control over which plants bred with which.
Easy to Grow
The garden pea plant is small, grows quickly, and requires little care.

This allowed Mendel to breed many, many generations and perform and repeat his experiments without any assistance.
Step 1: Parental Generation
Mendel created
true-breeding
plants by allowing them to self-pollinate for many generations.

He developed a true-breeding plant for each contrasting trait he was going to test.

These became the parental or
P
generation of plants.
Step 2: F1 Generation
Mendel crossed true-breeding plants with two contrasting traits (such as purple flowers and white flowers) to create a new generation.

This generation is called the F1 generation.

He recorded the number of plants in this generation that had each trait.
Step 3: F2 Generation
Mendel allowed the F1 generation plants to self-pollinate.

The resulting generation of plants is called the F2 generation.

He recorded the number of plants in this generation that had each trait.
(Refer to page 269)
Full transcript