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Transcript of Autism
Autism is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, evident before age three and adversely affecting a child’s educational performance. The individual often engages in repetitive activities and stereotypic movement, is resistant to environmental changes or changes in daily routines, and experiences unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Autism Spectrum Disorder;
1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity
2. Deficits in nonverbal communication behaviors used for social interaction
3. Deficits in developing and maintaining relationships and adjusting to social contexts expected for developmental level
Restrictive/Repetitive Interests and Behaviors; (At least 2 out of 3) Stereotyped or repetitive speech , motor movements or use of objects
Social Communication Disorder; a disability in social communication with repetitive behavior
Statistics: 1 in 68 children
Autism is the most rapidly growing disorder
Greater awareness that it exists, improved identification, disorder demonstrated across all IQ levels,
4:1 males to females have autism
Causes of Autism?
possibly genetic, environmental, neurological
Controversy: refrigerator mothers, vaccines -no validity as of now
Diagnosis includes early screening using assessment instruments including M-CHAT , Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) or Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), also the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is used as well as the DSM-V criteria. The developmental history and parent report are important and it is usually a multidisciplinary endeavor.
1. Grandin. T. (1995). Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Co.
3. Taylor, R., Smiley, L., & Richards, S. (2009). Exceptional students: Preparing teachers for the 21st century. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Difficulty interacting with others, including lack of eye contact
Verbal and nonverbal communication deficits including limited vocabulary, echolalia, deficits in communicative intent.
Rigid and restrictive behavioral repertoire and imaginative skills
Repetitive and stereotypical behaviors
Reduced sensitivity to pain
Theory of Mind: the ability of an individual to see the world from the perspective of others. Children on the autism spectrum lack this ability.
How do I teach?
Individualized support and services
Clear, structured environments
Specialized curriculum content
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Triad of impairments:
1. Difficulty interacting with other people in a social context.
2. Difficulty communicating with others, both verbally and non-verbally.
3. Rigid and restrictive behavioral repertoire and imaginative skills, including the need for elaborate routines, insistence on sameness, restricted play patterns or interests, and motor stereotypes.
DSM V as of 2013