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Chapter 11, Section 1
Transcript of Chapter 11, Section 1
490-479 B.C. *Persia had taken over city states in Ionia and those cities had rebelled. Tensions rise and Persia (leader Darius) invades near Athens around 490 BC.
*20,000 Persians horsemen to 10,000 Greeks (only foot soldiers not archers). Outnumbered, but Athenians attack anyway in phalanxes (special formation)
*Surprising Athenian victory at Battle of Marathon ended the First Persian War
*Son of Darius, Xerxes, starts Second Persian War in 480 B.C. with allies from Egypt and Phonecia (part of Persian empire)
*Spartans attempt to stop at Thermopylae but were ambushed by Persians after traitor helped
*Athens led by Themistocles hid ships in islands so when Persians arrive in strait near Athens, Athenians surprise attack. Battle of Salamis ends Persian naval power and Persians are defeated. Athens Rivals Sparta * Athens enjoys "golden age" after defeat of Persians, tons of rebuilding, art and learning.
*Athens (best navy) rival Spartans (best army)--leads to deadly conflict
*Delian League--alliance (association to achieve goal) with other city states and Athens on Delios island. Raised money for protection from Persia; Athens greatest power in group of 150--could protect grain supply through Aegean Sea
*Athens runs Delian League like it's own treasury and angers other city states--took money to build own ships or build only in city of Athens
*Pelopennesian League--Spartan alliance which feared Athens' power and style of government.
*Conflict comes when Athens puts trade ban (not allowed) on a member of the Pelopennesian league and so both sides prepare for war. Pelopennesian War: 431 B.C.-404 B.C. *Spartans attack Athens. Leader of Athens, Pericles orders all farmers to come into city.
Seige meant to cut off food/water supply to help defeat the enemy
*Athens ready for this by creating wall along road to sea which meant they could survive for 1 year until disease broke out inside city walls. Many died. Pericles died too.
*War drags on because both sides have powerful forces (navy vs. army)
*Sparta near defeat but both sides agree on truce (stop fighting) in 421.
*Truce broken a few years later when Athens attacks Sicily.
*Sparta gets money from Persia to build up navy and destroys Athenians navy at Battle of Aegospotami. Attack city of Athens after.
*Athens surrendered--forced to break Long Walls, give up democractic government.
*War hurt all city states---thousands died, cities destroyed, governments broken, trade stopped,