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An Age of Exploration and Isolation
Transcript of An Age of Exploration and Isolation
1419- Prince Henry starts a navigation school. He used the technological advantages of caravels, astrolabes, and magnetic compasses.
1487- Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Southern tip of Africa.
1492- Christopher Columbus reaches the Caribbean while trying to reach East Asia. Columbus increased tensions between Spain and Portugal but also opened up the Americas for European settlement.
1494- Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas which established a Line of Demarcation that separated where the Spanish and Portuguese could settle. The treaty opened lands in the Americas to exploration and colonization.
1498- Vasco de Gama reaches the port of Calicut on the Indian Ocean giving Portugal a direct sea route to Asia.
1521- Ferdinand Megellan leads a Spanish expedition to the Philippines.
1565- Spain begins settlements in the Philippines to challenge Portuguese trade domination in Asia.
1619- The Dutch establish a trading center on the island of Java and allied itself with the British to end Portugal's domination of the region. Then the Dutch drove out the British.
1664- The French set up their own East India Company.
Before the Europeans began to dominate the region, the peoples of Asia were virtually unaffected by European contact.
China Rejects European Outreach
The rulers of the Ming Dynasty drive out the Mongols and bring peace and prosperity to China.
Hongwu reformed agriculture and restored civil service and Confucian moral standards.
Hongwu's reforms were to increase rice production, improve irrigation, and to begin fish farming and commercial crops.
The government took control of all foriegn trade in an effort to keep the influence of outsiders to a minimum.
Foreign trade led to an increase in manufacturing and commerce and the introduction of Christianity and European inventions. However, tight government control led to smuggling.
The Manchus invade China and begin the Qing Dynasty.
The Manchu rulers gained the respect of the Chinese by preserving Chinese tradition and Confucian beliefs. The Manchurians also restored prosperity and safety.
Chinese art reflected technical skills rather than creativity. Chinese plays depicted events and heroes from Chinese history.
Manchu rulers restricted foreign trade to certain ports where they demanded tribute and "kowtow" ceremonies.
The Chinese accepted the Dutch as trading partners because they followed Chinese rules.
The Chinese rejected the British because they refused to "kowtow".
Japan Limits Western Contacts
The daimyo were feudal lords that fought each other for power since the shoguns took control of the government. The daimyo helped to unify Japan when they accepted the rule of the shogun.
Oda Nobunaga seized the imperial capital and set out on a mission to eliminate his rivals.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi continued Nobunaga's mission through brute force and political alliances, gaining control of most of Japan.
Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated his rivals, completed unification, and founded the Tokugawa Shogunate.
The Tokugawa Shogunate brought about nearly two centuries of stability, prosperity, and isolation.
The Portuguese introduced items from Europe, including firearms that changed samurai traditions and led to fortified castle walls. This would lead to the spread of cities and towns.
Christian missionaries were accepted at first and converted many Japanese to Christianity but they were later persecuted which led to the end of Christianity in Japan.
The "closed country" policy allowed the Tokugawa shoguns to monopolize foreign trade. It also made Japan self-sufficient and isolated from European influences.