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Transcript of Osmosis
the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane Can be defined as: the diffusion of fluids through membranes Source: dictionary.com Occurs in cells and organs Where and why? Occurs in human kidneys to recover water from waste materials. Occurs in plants in root hairs, allowing water to be taken in from the soil. Generally requires living cell membranes, but can happen in non-living membranes such as Visking dialysis tubing. Always moves from high concentration to low concentration Direction of Movement In hypotonic environment: Water moves into a cell. In hypertonic environment: Water moves out of a cell. In isotonic environment: Water moves into and out of. *No net movement. When the solute molecule concentration in the cell is lower than the molecule concentration in the cytosol, the outside solution is known as hypotonic. Hypotonic Environments If an external solution is hypotonic, water moves into a cell and expands it. Some organisms must find ways to rid themselves of excess water. *Paramecia have contractile vacuoles *Some organisms pump solutes into the cytosol. *Other cells will lose their shape or cytolyze (burst). *Passive form of water transport. When the solute molecule concentration in the cell is higher than the molecule concentration in the cytosol, the outside solution is known as hypertonic. Hypertonic Environments If the solution outside of a cell is hypertonic, water will move out of the cell and shrink it. Cells in a hypertonic environment will go through plasmolysis and shrink away from their cell walls, and as a result, turgor pressure (the amount of pressure cells exert against their cell walls) is lost. When the molecule concentrations of two solutions are equal, the solutions are known as isotonic. Isotonic Environments If the solutions inside and outside of a cell are isotonic, there is movement of solution into and out of the cell. *No net movement of water or change in cell size. --Multicellular organisms such as vertebrates and most organisms living in the sea have usually no difficulty in keeping balance in an isotonic internal environment. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_osmosis_works.html Animation of Osmosis dictionary.com Works Cited Modern Biology book, pages 98-100 urila.tripod.com bookrags.com/research/osmosis-woc/