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Transcript of Dissertation Presentation
The author (tasks B-J) and an associate, a psychologist (A, K-O) interviewed after checking for coding consistency.
The students worked through 18 tasks
Tasks A, K-O answered part-whole research questions
Task B-J answered placed value research questions Very difficult to find the answer to the research questions because the study was so comprehensive
Other than that- very well-designed study.
Comprehensive in scope of questions and study participants
Simple initial question, highly relevant, developed into several tasks based on previous research .
Paper presented at conference in following year is referenced in many articles including current articles. 60 Children
15 from each grade 2, 3, 4 and 5
Students from 33 different classroooms
Age range 6.11-11.7
31 male, 29 female University of California, Berkeley Sharon Hill Ross 1985 Questions 1. What knowledge of place-value and whole-part relations is characteristic of children in grades 2-5?
2. How do children's development of place-value knowledge relate to age and grade in school?
3. How stable is children's ability to demonstrate understanding of place value when materials, canonicity, and set size are varied?
4. What prerequisite concepts of numeration and number are necessary to understand place-value
5. How is children's understanding of part-whole relations related to their understanding of place-value? Schools 5 schools in Butte County, California
Butte County is the agricultural center of Sacramento Valley in Northern CA.
4 public schools and 1 private school
One school serves a neighborhood with upper-middle class professionals, another a working class neighborhood with many Spanish-speaking households and the other three were socio-economically heterogeneously mixed .
Three schools from a community of 50,000, another from a community of 25,000 and third- 500. Place Value Tasks Numeration Knowledge Tasks Task A: Count Orally by Ten's
Task B: Positional Knowledge Number Knowledge Tasks Task C: Counts 48 beans by using groupings of ten
Task D: Conversion of grouped number (Spills beans out of all but 3 cups, asks child to count
Task E: Builds 52 with Dienes blocks
Task F: Build 52 in two ways with Dienes Blocks Digit Correspondence Tasks Task G: How many toy cars can be made from 16 toy wheels?
Task H: Child counts 25 sticks. Interviewer circles 2 and 5 separately and asks what each digit has to do with the overall number of sticks
Task I: Assesses digit correspondence when objects were placed in groups of 10 in standard and non-standard way
Task J: Assesses students correspondence between Dienes blocks and digits Part-Whole Relationships Class Inclusion Task K: After being shown a "family" of ladybugs, child asked, which one has more members, the family or the babies?
Task L: After being shown a picture of daisies and roses child is asked if there are more roses or more flowers? Arithmetic Word Problems Task M: The students were verbally presented with addition problems Multiple Class Membership Task N: Checked whether students could see that objects could be members of two groups at once
by using geometric shapes
("Children who are unsuccessful on the multiple-class membership task may be unable to understand regrouping") Horizontal Reclassification Task O: This tasks determines whether a child who had classified an object according to one characteristic will reclassify it according to another 1. What knowledge of place-value and whole-part relations is characteristic of children in grades 2-5? 2. How do children's development of place-value knowledge relate to age and grade in school? 3. How stable is children's ability to demonstrate understanding of place value when materials, canonicity, and set size are varied? 4. What prerequisite concepts of numeration and number are necessary to understand place-value? 5. How is children's understanding of part-whole relations related to their understanding of place-value? General results:
While the children in the older grades performed better at these tasks, performance overall was very poor. Only half of the children in grade 4 and 5 demonstrated understanding of digit correspondence. Results were inconclusive because the design of the tasks used to demonstrate place value (an adaptation of an earlier task) was inadequte to determine if understanding extended to regrouping non-canonical representations of a number. Both numeration and number knowledge were found to be necessary for the understanding of place value. Analysis of results showed that several children who performed well on the tasks that tested numerations and number recognition did not perform well on the tasks that tested place-value understanding, thus the knowledge embedded in the tasks were not sufficient for understanding which concepts in that domain are prerequisite skills. Additional skills need to be identified. Understanding of part-whole relationship was found to be positively correlated with understanding place-value. The Role of Clinical Interview in Lesson Study: Investigating the Possibilities of a New Professional Development Model in Elementary Mathematics Education Joan V. Mast Teachers College, 2008 Research Questions In what ways does Child Study/Lesson Study*:
1. Increase teacher's understanding of students through classroom observation and discussion?
2. Provide teachers with additional insight into students' thinking through the use of clinical interviews?
3. Influence the planning and execution of lessons?
4. Produce extensive discussion of student learning and thinking during professional development sessions? Child Study/Lesson Study is a proposed model of professional development for teachers of K-4 which blends lesson study with clinical interviews. Schools and Participants Public elementary school in suburban New Jersey , 400 students in the school PreK-4th grade
Research Team included 6 teachers K-4, building principal and elementary supervisor
Class size 19.1 students, mainly native English speakers, no mobility rate compared to state average.
District has been supporting Lesson Study for 5 years, provides teachers with substitutes for 1 full day and 5 half-days
(Mast doesn't mention the period of time for which this is relevant) The Child Study/ Lesson Study Professional Development Model 1. Goal Setting and Planning 2. Research Lesson 3. Lesson Debriefing 4. Clinical Interview 5. Final Interview 6. Consolidation of Learning Methodology After the entire Child Study/Lesson Study process is completed, the Research Team engages in reflection on how effective the model was.
Qualitative Data includes
Debriefing Session Transcripts
Clinical Interview Transcripts
Post-Study Questionnaire Findings
Broken down by research question Critique In what ways does Child Study/Lesson Study*:
1. Increase teacher's understanding of students through classroom observation and discussion? Due to the vertical nature of lesson study teachers were able to see topic development through different grades which helped them design activities for students in their own classroom.
(Doesn't answer research question) In what ways does Child Study/Lesson Study*:
2. Provide teachers with additional insight into students' thinking through the use of clinical interviews? During the clinical interview, at least one big idea about effective teaching and learning was arrived at,
"The role of student language in assessment"
" How misconceptions begin",
Identifying students who are "performance-oriented rather than learning-oriented",
"How students can use bluff to arrive at the correct answer"
"wait time can be an effective strategy for accurate assessment." In what ways does Child Study/Lesson Study*:
3. Influence the planning and execution of lessons? Due to the collaborative nature of Child Study/Lesson Study, teachers were influenced by and influenced other teachers within the Research Team. In what ways does Child Study/Lesson Study*:
4. Produce extensive discussion of student learning and thinking during professional development sessions? Initially most discussions during the debriefing sessions focused on observations about students - there was little focus on lesson reflection. During the last few sessions, however, teachers began to focus more on teaching methods that led to confusion and teachers became more honest with the Research Team about not understanding some student responses and some Team member explanations. There is so much focus on the Model and very little on the analysis of the effectiveness of the model
Research questions are barely answered
To both participate in the model and evaluate the effectiveness seems like a conflict of interest
The qualitative research done is not very in-depth
Questionnaire is biased Answered previously