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BIO12: Tissue Mind Map

Types of Tissues of human body: nervous, connective, epithelial, muscular

Jane Wong

on 5 April 2011

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Transcript of BIO12: Tissue Mind Map

T I S S U E S epithelial connective muscular nervous similarly specialized cells that perform a common function in the body PRESENT IN THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD contains nerve cells called NEURONS NEURON: a specialized cell that has 3 parts dendrites cell body axon conducts signals toward the cell body contains major concentration of the cytoplasm.
also contains nucleus of neuron conducts nerve impulses away from cell body.
can be quite long.
outside of brain and spinal cord.....
these long axons are long fibres bound by connective tissue THEY FORM NERVES. CELL BODY AXON DENDRITE THREE FUNCTIONS - sensory input
- integration ofd data
- motor input nerves conduct impulses from sensory receptors to the spinal cord in the BRAIN! nerves conduct impulses from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands ex. glands secreting and muscles contracting neurological cells one of several types of cells found in nervous tissue SUPPORTS
NOURRISHES NEURONS binds organs together, provides support and protection, fills spaces, produces blood cells, and stores fat MATRIX widely separates connective tissue cells noncellular material
contains collagen (protein that gives flexibility and strength possible types of fibres of the MATRIX thin collagen fibres
highly branched
delicate supporting networks yellow
contains elastin (protein not as strong as collagen; more elastic) Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue supports epithelium & many internal organs

allow organs to expand (ie. lungs, arteries, urinary bladder)

protective covering for many internal organs (ie. muscles, blood vessels, nerves) many collagen fibres packed together

more specific functions

ie. tendons and ligaments both have cells called fibroblasts

fibroblasts are separted by jellylike matrix (which has white collagen fibres & yellow elastic fibres) C A R T I L A G E cells of cartilage are found in small chambers called LACUNAE
separated by a matrix that is solid, but flexible 3 types of C A R T I L A G E HYALINE CARTILAGE ELASTIC CARTILAGE FIBROCARTILAGE most common
very fine collagen fibres
matrix is translucent white
found in nose, ends of long bones and the ribs more elastic fibres than hyaline cartilage
found in framework of outer ear strong collagen fibres
found in structures that undergo tension and pressure
ie. in pads between vertebrae B O N E most rigid connective tissue
hard matrix of inorganic salts (calcium salts especially) around protein fibres
salts give bone rigidity while protein fibres add to elasticity and strength COMPACT BONE sPONGY BONE makes up shaft of a long bone
has cylindrical structural units 'OSTEONS'
osteons have a central canal surrounded by rings of hard matrix
'OSTEOCYTES' are bone cells located between rings of the matrix
the central canal contains blood vessels to carry nutrients for the bone to renew itself

entirely different structure than compact bone
numerous bony bars and plates (separated by irregular spaces)
lighter than compact bone, but still strong
B L O O D transports molecules (nutrients and oxygen, removes wastes and carbon dioxide)
regulates tissues
protects the body
distribute heat
fluid, ion, and pH balance
ability to clot prevents fluid loss
matrix is the plasma plasma 55%
red blood cell & white blood cells 45%
have a nucleus
translucent (without staining)
fight infection
engulf infectious pathogens
produce antibodies
RED BLOOD CELLS small, biconcave, disk-shaped cells
no nuclei
red pigement hemoglobin makes cells red
hemoglobin: made of 4 units; protein globin and a complex iron-containing structure 'HEME'
iron allows red blood cells to transport oxygen by forming loose bonds PLATELETS not complete cells
fragments of giant cells present in bone marrow
act as plug for damaged blood vessels
help clotting process blood unlike other types of connective tissue because the matrix is not made by the cells also called epithelium, a continuous layer/sheet lining the body surface and
inner body cavities ,formed from tightly packed cells External Surface protects the body from:
-drying out
-pathogen (virus, bacterium) invasion 3 TYPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE squamous epithelium: flattened cells
ex. lines the lungs, blood vessels cuboidal epithelium: cube-shaped cells
ex. lines the kidney tubules scolumnar epithelium: resembles rectangular pillars/ columns
nuclei located near the bottom
ex. lines the digestive tract, oviducts(women) epithelial tissue can also be SIMPLE or STRATIFIED
simple: single layer of cells
stratified: layers of cells piled one on top of the other Internal Surfaces can be specialized for other functions along with protection examples.
-secreting mucus along the
digestive tract appears layered but true layers do not exist because each cell touches the base line there is also... PSEUDOSTRATIFIED EPITHELIUM BASEMENT MEMBRANE is a glycoprotein reinforced by fibers supplied by connective tissues
joins an epithelium to underlying connective tissue GLAND can be a single epithelial cell or contain many cells
sometimes secretes a product (glandular) exocrine gland: secretes product into ducts endocrine gland: secretes product into bloodstream types of glands pancreas is both an endo- and exocrine gland also called contractile tissue composed of cells that are called muscle fibers which contain actin and myosin filaments interaction of actin and myosin filaments account for movement skeletal (voluntary) muscle smooth (visceral) muscle cardiac muscle 3 TYPES OF VERTEBRATE MUSCLE attached to the bones by tendons contractions of muscles cause movement of body parts contractions are under voluntary control occur faster than in other muscle types muscle fibers are quite long and cylindrical arises during development when several cells fuse which results in one fiber with multiple nuclei the nuclei is located at the periphery of the cell (just inside of the cell membrane) the fibers have alternating light and dark bands which give it a striated appearance which is due to the placement of actin and myosin filaments in the cell the fibers lack striations are spindle-shaped and form layers the thick middle portion of one cell is opposite to the thin ends of adjacent cells the nuclei form irregular patterns in the tissue smooth muscles are not under voluntary control, therefore they are involuntary are found in the walls of viscera (intestine, stomach, other internal organs) and blood vessels contracts more slowly than skeletal muscles, however it remains contracted longer examples of smooth muscles
muscles of the intestine contract which food moves along lumen (central cavity)
muscles of blood vessels contract which constrict and help raise blood pressure found only in the walls of the heart its contraction pumps blood accounts for the heartbeat combines features from both SKELETAL muscles and SMOOTH muscles have striations the contractions are mostly involuntary cells have a single, centrally placed nucleus the cells are branched and are seemingly fused with one another the heart appears to be made of one large interconnecting mass of muscle cells the cells are separate and individual however... ...but bound end to end at intercalated disks (areas where folded plasma membranes between two cells contain adhesion junctions [desmosomes] and gap junctions) NEUROLOGICAL CELLS outnumber neurons 9-1
more than half the volume of brain
SUPPORT AND SERVICE NEURONS 3 TYPES OF NEUROLOGICAL CELLS oligodendrocytes microglial cells astrocytes form myelin & microglial cells form phagocytize bacteria and cellular debris, supporting neurons provide nutrients to neurons
produce hormone 'GLIAL-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR' to sum it up... -sweeping up impurities from
the lungs -absorbing molecules from
the kidney tubules/intestine PROJECT BY: Jane Wong and Ashley Oh
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