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Nursing in London: Honors Project
Transcript of Nursing in London: Honors Project
A Sudden Fearful Death, 1865
Nurse Training Schools
Nightingale's training school served as a model for other schools to follow.
The first permanent nurse training school opened in the United States in 1872 and was located at the Women's Hospital of Philadelphia (Egenes).
In the United States, the nurse training schools depended on the hospital they were connected to, meaning the needs of the hospital came first.
Student nurses provided cheap labor, they were often unprepared and overworked.
The World 's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893
The World's Columbian Exposition was the first time that nurses from across the globe came together to discuss the advancement of their profession.
Various papers were read by prominent figures in the field, such as Nightingale. Topics included licensing, nursing organizations, and education.
The most important of the three being the need for nurses to become registered.
From A Sudden Fearful Death to Current Day
American Nurses Association
To unite all nurses, the American Nurses Association was created in 1896.
At the first convention, there were fewer than twenty nurses in attendance. The main goal of the ANA was for nurses to become licensed.
Other goals of the organization were to develop a code of ethics, to promote the image of nursing, and to protect nurses' professional interests.
Today the ANA represents over 3.1 million nurses in the US.
National League for Nursing
Founded in 1893 by eighteen superintendents of the training schools to address the need for an elevated standard curriculum for nurses and nurse educators.
It was formally called the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nursing.
Today members included; nurse educators, health care agencies, and even members of the public can become involved.
There are currently over 35,000 members.
Nurses and Wartime
War was one of the best ways to advance the field of nursing.
It was difficult for nurses at first to gain acceptance from the male medical officers but with time the doctors began to rely on nurses for their skillful care of the wounded and sick.
Military nursing did not become prevalent until after WWI. By the end of the war, there were over 21,000 nurses serving in the Army Corps.
Advances in Nursing Education
In 1923, the Committee for the Study of Nursing Education released the Goldman Report.
Then, the same committee released another report in 1926 known as the Burgess Report. This recommended admission criteria be created for admittance to nursing school.
Today the three most common ways to enter the field of nursing are: the BSN degree, ADN degree, or a three-year diploma program administered at hospitals.
Florence Nightingale was the first to lay down the philosophy of what it means to be a nurse.
To be a profession, there must be both a unique body of knowledge and rigorous standard curriculum present.
The education of nursing has evolved from its humble beginnings at hospital training schools to now being offered in a university setting with available post graduate degree programs.
Overall, as women's rights have changed so too have women's role in nursing.
Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing
Traditionally, the ADN degree has been more popular because it requires less time to complete.
A study done in 2008 found that with every ten percent increase of BSN nurses there was a four percent decrease in the risk of death.
In 2010, the Institute of Medicine issued a landmark report calling for the number of BSN prepared nurses to increase to eighty percent by 2020.
BSN is the minimum requirement to practice as a professional nurse.
Associate Degree for Nursing
Created by Mildred Montag in 1952 as her doctoral thesis
After five years of testing the degree proved successful in educating nurses in two years instead of four.
This program helped to alleviate the shortage of nurses after WWI by making the degree available to those that were excluded before such as males and married women.
ADN focuses more on the technical aspect of nursing in acute care settings. It does not prepare nurses for graduate study.
Advanced Practice Roles in Nursing
The first master's graduate degree program for nursing was offered at Teachers College in 1899.
In the 1970"s, clinical specialist roles were offered for a variety of areas such as mental health, cardiac, oncology, and community health nursing.
A 2011 survey found that 26,507 students graduated from a master's or doctoral program.
The Institute of Medicine states that the number of nurses with a doctoral degree will double by 2020.
Nursing, like any public structure, has different stereotypes attached to it. These stereotypes have changed based on the time period.
Some stereotypes include:
Angel of Mercy
Motherly/ Feminine role
Are there any stereotypes still present today in nursing?
From the beginning, nursing has always been viewed as a feminine role.
This novel highlights the stereotype of nursing at this time which was that nurses were treated like glorified maids.
" Nurses were for cleaning the ward, emptying slops, winding bandages and generally doing as they were told. The practice of medicine was for doctors alone" (Perry,1993).
At this time, most of the "nurses" were not actually trained nurses. They were usually considered lazy and often were drunk at work.
Known as the "Lady with the Lamp" or the "Mother of Modern Nursing"
Florence became a heroine to the people of England after her lifesaving work to improve hospital conditions during the Crimean War.
Upon returning home, Florence established the Nightingale School of Nursing at St. Thomas's Hospital in London.
Helped to establish nursing as a profession.
Florence was a visionary for the potential of women and the profession of nursing.
A study done by the California Nurses Association in 1946 found that nurses were only paid slightly higher than house maids.
That year at the American Nurses Association Shirley Titus argued for nurses' rights to economic security through collective bargaining, insurance plans, and benefit packages.
In 1949, the state nursing associations were approved for collective bargaining by the ANA.
" ANA History." American Nurses Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA/History>.
" The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice." American Association of Colleges of Nursing . N.p., 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/impact-of-education>.
Domrose, Cathryn . "History lesson: Nursing education has evolved over the decades." Nurse.com. N.p., 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://news.nurse.com/article/20121112/HL02/311120010>.
"Early History of Associate Degree Nursing." History of Nursing Education. N.p., 29 May 2013. Web. 22 July 2013. <http://nursingeducationhistory.org/files/Early_History_of_Associate_Degree_Nursing.pdf>.
Egenes, Karen. "History of Nursing." Jones and Bartlett Learning. Jones and Bartlett, n.d. Web. 22 July 2013. <www.jblearning.com/samples/0763752258/52258_ch01_roux.pdf>.
Kalisch, Philip Arthur, and Beatrice J. Kalisch. The changing image of the nurse. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1987. Print.
Moore, Dianne S., and MPH. "The Differences Between Associate Degree Nurses and the Baccalaureate Degree Nurses." West Coast University: Dean's Corner . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://www.westcoastuniversity.net/deanscorner/print.php?article=22>.
"New AACN Data Show an Enrollment Surge in Baccalaureate and Graduate Programs Amid Calls for More Highly Educated Nurses ." American Association of Colleges of Nursing . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://www.aacn.nche.edu/news/articles/2012/enrollment-data>.
Selanders, Louise. "Nightingale." Nursing in London. Michigan State University. Regent's College, London. 9 July 2013. Class lecture.
Crane, Patrick. "Nursing Education in the US." Nursing in London. Michigan State University. Regent's College, London. 24 July 2013. Class lecture.
Perry, Anne. A sudden, fearful death. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1993. Print.
"National League for Nursing - About the NLN." National League for Nursing . N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://www.nln.org/aboutnln/index.htm>.