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Island Succession: Primary and Secondary

By: Sophia E. Anaya


on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Island Succession: Primary and Secondary

Island (Hawaii) Succession:
Primary and Secondary

By: Sophia E. Anaya
Ecological Succession-
Primary Succession-
Primary Succession-
Secondary Succession-
Secondary Succesion-
Pioneer Species-
is the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time that maintains equilibrium, or state of balance. There are two main types of ecological succession: primary and secondary.
is the series of changes that occur in an area where no ecosystem previously existed. At first, there is no soil, just ash and rock. Then, the first species populate the area. Over time, plant seeds land in the new soil and begin to grow. As the soil grows older and richer, trees and shrubs sprout. Eventually, this will lead to a community of organisms. But, reaching this stable community can take centuries.
Example on an Island (Hawaii):
(1) After a volcanic eruption, the ground surface is ash and rock.
(2) The first organisms to appear are lichens and moss, these are called pioneer species.
(3) Weeds and grasses grow in the thin soil.
(4) Eventually, trees and shrubs sprout.
are the first species to populate the area. Pioneer species are often liches and mosses carried to the area by wind or water. These species can grow with little or no soil. As these organisms grow, they help break up the rocks. When they die, they enrich the thin layer of soil that is forming.
is the series of changes that occur after a disturbance in an existing ecosystem. Secondary succession restores the ecosystem to a stable state which can be maintained. Natural disturbances that have this effect include fires, hurricanes, and tornadoes. Human activities, such as farming, logging, or mining, may also disturb an ecosystem.
Example on an Island (Hawaii):
(1) A catastrophe occurs, such as a fire, hurricane, or tornado, which destroys the ecosystem.
(2) The first organisms to appear (pioneer species) are lichens and mosses.
(3) Weeds and grasses grow in the soil.
(4) Eventually, trees and shrubs will sprout
once again.
(1) Why is secondary succession faster than primary succession?
Secondary succession is faster than primary succession because soil is already there and usually contains many seeds.
Thank you for you time!
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