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Imperialism in Indochina
Transcript of Imperialism in Indochina
(S. Vietnam) Cambodia European Powers in the Pacific Rim 1893 1863 1867 Vietnam 1859-1885 A. How did nations attempt to conquer the region?
B. How did people and governments in the region resist or accept imperialism?
C. What effects did imperialism have on different aspects of civilization in the region? 1863 1867 1893 French Indochina was a territory in the largely contested regions of Southeast Asia that mainly consisted of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
But first, let's get some background. What was French Indochina? France launches a series of military conquests that wear away at Vietnam’s independence. By 1885, the entire country is a part of French Indochina. King Norodom of Cambodia--a monarch installed by Thailand--seeks protection from the Thai and Vietnamese after tensions grow. The Thai king signs a treaty with France, transferring Cambodia to French rule in exchange for certain lands. Cambodia remains a protectorate until 1953. Vietnam Cambodia Laos Luang Prabang, capital of the Luang Prabang Kingdom, is ransacked by the Chinese Black Flag Army. France rescues King Oun Champasak and the kingdom is added to French Indochina. Vientiane is later added to the protectorate. 1940s France is forced to surrender control of French Indochina to Japan. Japanese occupation in WWII causes the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which kills two million. Motives Aspects of Civilization Why did Europe rush to carve up the Pacific Rim? Strategic Location
Competition The Southeast Asia region was conveniently located along the sea route to China, making ownership of these lands important. Pacific colonies were also perfect for plantation agriculture, and could be used to harvest sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, rubber, bananas, and pineapples. These lands also contained tin, oil, and minerals. We'll begin by asking a few that we will examine thorughout this presentation But to understand what happened, we first need to know the Europeans' There were three main reasons: Now that that's cleared up, let's see the different colonies in Southeast Asia and examine the history of one particular region: French Indochina. Here's a timeline of what exactly happened to form this territory. After the region's history is briefed, we will move on to discuss the consequences of imperialism. Now, for the effects of colonization, a.k.a the Religious Intellectual Political Economic Social Environmental Roman Catholicism was introduced to Vietnamese society. Education was improved in Southeast Asia,
and a system of modern education was implemented in Vietnam by the French . Communication technologies were improved, though these changes mostly benefited Europeans. The French also did not encourage local industries, instead promoting their own: they produced tin, rubber, and coffee in Laos, and in Vietnam, the French grew four times as much rice as there was before--this led to rebellions, as most of the rice was exported and thus natives' consumption of the staple decreased. People of many different ethnicities mixed in the Southeast Asian landscape, as workers were needed and outsiders were encouraged to move to the Pacific Rim.
These population and ethnicity changes led to cultural conflicts that remain today. France transformed most of its territories into plantation economies to produce resources and, in the case of Vietnam, promoted the export of indigo, tobacco, tea, and coffee.
The French also grew much rice in Indochina, leading to rebellions in Vietnam due to food shortages from exporting most of it instead of feeding the indigenous population. The French helped the Nguyen Dynasty rise to power in Vietnam so they could centralize power in the nation before colonizing it.
All of the important positions in government were taken by the French as well, in a system of direct colonial management.
The French also introduced the corvee system, which required 10 days of manual labor per year of every male Lao. Imperialism: Methods As we've seen from the timeline, there are two main ways that the French took control of Indochina. Military force (Vietnam)
Offering protection (Laos & Cambodia) In Vietnam's case, France used direct military force to take the land--first the southern Vietnam, then the north end) as one of its colonies. France offered protections to nations in danger, and thus was able to gain Laos and Cambodia when both were threatened by other countries. Please press and hold the left arrow key to rewind the presentation for the next viewer. Mixed Results Different European nations had to compete for these resources and locations, and had to race to lay claim to the Pacific Rim.