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Chesapeake vs. New England

APUSH Project, Nick Harrelson, James DiLollo
by

Nick Harrelson

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Chesapeake vs. New England

Geography/Climate New England vs. Chesapeake Way of Life People Economy Social Classes Nick Harrelson James DiLollo Chesapeake New England Chesapeake Chesapeake Chesapeake Chesapeake New England New England New England New England -poor soil, rocky
-clean air (10+ years of life) -soil used up from excess
tobacco farming
-"American Wilderness" -widows could inherit property
- no separate titles between
husband and wife
- a slow start for women's
rights -pastures instead of farms
-fishing & ship building
-couldn't grow crops -The New England family
-invented the concept of
"grandparents"
-low divorce rate
-low pre-martial pregnancy
rates shows family stability -large families
-church membership -very happy tobacco industry
which brought in rare need
for slaves
-in 1600s indentured servants
were being replaces by black
slaves -land owners had a lot of
power
-indentured servants were used
until slaves were available
-black slave revolts -in 1650 men outnumbered
women 6 to 1
-in 1670 black slaves made up
7% of the southern population -many lonely men in mid
16th century
-lived for tobacco farming,
often planted before food to eat
-indentured servants and
eventually black slaves were
just a part of life In the Chesapeake region the land that they had was very important to them because it was such a farming industry. They needed the good soil that it had for all the tobacco farming; however, due to the intense farming this eventually destroyed the usable soil. The climate was a warm, swampy region that was great for year round harvests but also perfect to harvest disease such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid. The way of life for many people in the Chesapeake was brutal and for some hard to survive. When the first settlers arrived in the Chesapeake they were struck hard with disease and sickness which brought the life expectancy down by 10 to 15 years. Also farming was a huge part of the Chesapeake life. The demand for tobacco was so great that farmers were often forced to plant tobacco to sell before food to eat. The Chesapeake region started out as heavily male dominated. Due to all the disease and death most of the early settlers died soon after arriving and most new arrivals were single men in their late teens and early twenties. The surviving men competed for the affection of the extremely scarce women who were, in 1650, outnumbered nearly 6 to 1. Eventually immunities too these diseases developed and the white population started to stabilize. Anther topic of the people is all the servitude and slaves. With the Chesapeake being a huge farming business, they needed lots of workers so they were forced to move from indentured servitude to black slavery. It became a huge industry and by 1670 black slaves made up 7% of the southern population. The economy of the Chesapeake region was strongly farming based. When the first settlers came, the Chesapeake had great soil and climate that was perfect for farming. The tobacco industry soon took off and tobacco was being produced before food, however, the soil was being destroyed due to all the farming. This is the main thing that brought in all the black slaves to the region. The social classes in the Chesapeake region were very basic for a farming economy. The land owners were at the top and dominated the region, next were the poor whites who were often past indentured servants, these people will not feel equal to the other whites, the there are the indentured servants and finally the black slaves. When one person is put above another in society the one who is below is not happy and often revolts as we can see with the poor whites and the black slaves. New England is geographically north of the Chesapeake and therefore came with cooler temperatures and cleaner water, slowing the spread of disease. The air quality was improved over that of Old England so much that moving to New England alone added ten years of life alone. Agriculture was not a viable industry due to both the cold and the rocky condition of the soil. In contrast to the local indian tribes who would take care of the forest to preserve it’s produce, New Englanders would clear out large patches of forest and use the land to their complete advantage. People who moved to New England often moved in families as opposed to single men. Couples were wed early and had large amounts of children; the family was a stressed value in the New England lifestyle. New England was also said to have invented the concept of “grandparents.” People lived long enough here that grandparents could give guidance to both their children and grandchildren as opposed to the Chesapeake where people didn’t live long enough to be a grandparent. The low pre-marital pregnancy rates reflected on the stability of families, and any couple who would divorce would often be ordered to return to each other by the authorities. Towns which had more than fifty families would be required to set up a school house, which led to a high literacy rate. In the churches of New England there was a social gap between the elect and those not elect. This began to dissolve with the implementation of the half-way covenant, allowing more people to be a part of the church while still not being officially “elect.” Although not as serious as the social problem in the Chesapeake, the Salem Witch Trials brought many women to death due to the accusation of being a witch. Many accusations came from those in farming families, while the accused were often in families associated with the new market economy. Aside from these few events, there was no real social division in New England. The only large shift from “old ways” was in that women now had a slow movement for rights. New England widowers could now inherit land from their deceased husbands. Although women could not get a separate title from their husbands due to the fear of interrupting marital unity. The New England economy could not be based on agriculture like the Chesapeake.The poor rocky soil did not allow this, so New Englanders relied on their forests and waters. Carving out a fishing and shipping industry from the land they also created a stable fur trade using their rivers. Slaves were tried in New England society, but they were never really needed so the practice died out quickly. New England families were large and as a result had large amounts of children. Children were raised with the values of both their parents and grandparents. Unlike the Chesapeake, people in New England lived to old age and were thus able to meet their grandchildren. This is why New England is said to have invented to concept of "grandparents." There was a low divorce rate among couples, and those who did were often ordered by authorities to get back together. The low pre-martial pregnancy rates were reflected in family stability unlike the Chesapeake where pre-martial pregnancies were common.
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