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Tuberculosis

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by

Amy F

on 16 July 2014

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Transcript of Tuberculosis



http://www.voki.com/pickup.php?scid=9460037&height=400&width=300

62
ECG
bpm
Thank You!
Disclaimer

"All lecture material, including any images used in PowerPoint presentations, is solely for your personal academic use. This material may be protected by copyright law and should not be duplicated or reused."


The information provided in this lecture was in no way funded by any special interest groups or grants.
Objectives
1. Discuss function and structure of the lungs

2. Describe Tuberculosis (TB) and explain its pathophysiology

3. Examine the diagnosis of TB

4. Enumerate the symptoms of TB

5. Describe the treatment and management of TB
What is the main function of the Lungs?
by: Amy Fuliga
GNSG 606 Advanced Pathophysiology
Professor Jane Rabun

Tuberculosis
Breathing, Gas Exchange
What are the main structures of the Lungs? 0:18 - 1:36

Two forms of Tuberculosis (TB)
1. M. tuberculosis hominis (human TB)

2. M. tuberculosis bovis (bovine TB)
Porth, 2009
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw9OJLTlCl
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGZLkRN76D




https;//www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHDS42fr17A
What are some of the symptoms?
* Early Infection
- generally without signs or symptoms;
- fever or dyspnea

* Early Primary Progressive (Active)
- inflammation of tissues, fatigue, weight loss, fever

* Late Primary Progressive (Active)
- productive cough, progressive weight loss, rales, anemia
- CXR normal; diagnosis via sputum cultures

* Latent
- no s/s; patients do not feel sick; susceptible to reactivation of disease
- CXR shows calcified granuloma; infection can reappear
Diagnostic Tests
Knechel, 2009
1. Sputum smear

2. Sputum culture

3. Polymerase chain reaction (DNA synthesis)

4. Tuberculin skin test

5. Quantiferon-TB test

6. Chest xray
Treatment
* Prompt isolation with suspected TB

* Nutrition

* Emotional support and education

* 12-week LTBI treatment regimen with INH and Rifampin under observed therapy
Prevalence
Study conducted among 4280 newly arrived refugees in San Diego County (Jan 2010 - Oct 2012) showed prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) highest among refugees from sub-Saharan Africa (43%) and was associated with current smoking and having comorbidity factors.
Bennett, Brodine, Waalen, Moser, & Rodwell, 2014
Bennett et al, 2014; Knechel, 2009
Trends in Tuberculosis - United States, 2012
A total of 9,951 new TB reported

An incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 population which represents a decrease of 6.1% from 2011
World TB Day - March 24; commemorates the date in 1882 when German bacteriologist Robert Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This day provides an opportunity to raise awareness about TB-related problems and solutions.
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2013
References

Bennett, R., Brodine, S., Waalen, J., Moser, K., & Rodwell, T. C. (2014). Prevalence and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection among newly arrived refugees in San Diego County, January 2010-October 2012. American Journal of Public Health, 104(4), 95-102.

Knechel, N. A. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. Critical Care Nurse, 29(2), 34-43.

Porth, C. M. (2009). Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states/Respiratory tract infections, neoplasms, and childhood disorders (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Trends in tuberculosis - United States, 2012. (2013, March 22). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(11), , 201-206.



References
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw9OJLTlCl
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGZLkRN76
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHDS42fr
Full transcript