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Transcript of Tuberculosis
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1. Discuss function and structure of the lungs
2. Describe Tuberculosis (TB) and explain its pathophysiology
3. Examine the diagnosis of TB
4. Enumerate the symptoms of TB
5. Describe the treatment and management of TB
What is the main function of the Lungs?
by: Amy Fuliga
GNSG 606 Advanced Pathophysiology
Professor Jane Rabun
Breathing, Gas Exchange
What are the main structures of the Lungs? 0:18 - 1:36
Two forms of Tuberculosis (TB)
1. M. tuberculosis hominis (human TB)
2. M. tuberculosis bovis (bovine TB)
What are some of the symptoms?
* Early Infection
- generally without signs or symptoms;
- fever or dyspnea
* Early Primary Progressive (Active)
- inflammation of tissues, fatigue, weight loss, fever
* Late Primary Progressive (Active)
- productive cough, progressive weight loss, rales, anemia
- CXR normal; diagnosis via sputum cultures
- no s/s; patients do not feel sick; susceptible to reactivation of disease
- CXR shows calcified granuloma; infection can reappear
1. Sputum smear
2. Sputum culture
3. Polymerase chain reaction (DNA synthesis)
4. Tuberculin skin test
5. Quantiferon-TB test
6. Chest xray
* Prompt isolation with suspected TB
* Emotional support and education
* 12-week LTBI treatment regimen with INH and Rifampin under observed therapy
Study conducted among 4280 newly arrived refugees in San Diego County (Jan 2010 - Oct 2012) showed prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) highest among refugees from sub-Saharan Africa (43%) and was associated with current smoking and having comorbidity factors.
Bennett, Brodine, Waalen, Moser, & Rodwell, 2014
Bennett et al, 2014; Knechel, 2009
Trends in Tuberculosis - United States, 2012
A total of 9,951 new TB reported
An incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 population which represents a decrease of 6.1% from 2011
World TB Day - March 24; commemorates the date in 1882 when German bacteriologist Robert Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This day provides an opportunity to raise awareness about TB-related problems and solutions.
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2013
Bennett, R., Brodine, S., Waalen, J., Moser, K., & Rodwell, T. C. (2014). Prevalence and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection among newly arrived refugees in San Diego County, January 2010-October 2012. American Journal of Public Health, 104(4), 95-102.
Knechel, N. A. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. Critical Care Nurse, 29(2), 34-43.
Porth, C. M. (2009). Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states/Respiratory tract infections, neoplasms, and childhood disorders (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Trends in tuberculosis - United States, 2012. (2013, March 22). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(11), , 201-206.