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Ciara Kavanagh

on 8 July 2014

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Transcript of Rockets

The First Spacecraft
First Animal in Space
First Person in Space
Moon Landing
Basic Parts of a Rocket
Mainly Influential Countries
Big Name in Rocket Design
Any Questions??
On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union stunned the world by placing the first satellite, Sputnik, into space.
The Russian spacecraft orbited around the earth in great, amorphous loops. The Americans were in awe of them and their feat. A lot of people doubted that it was really in space, some top minds reported it as unimportant and useless. Some saw it as an object to blown out of the sky, really was nothing more than a dummy space ship.

Sputnik 1, the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, launched by the U.S.S.R., and remains in orbit until January 4, 1958.

Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3 with the dog, Laika, the first animal in space.

amorphous: without a clearly defined shape or form.
Current Expeditions
In the early days of rocket science, no one knew what the effects of weightlessness would be. Animals — mainly dogs, monkeys and chimps — were used to test the safety and feasibility of launching a living being into space and bringing it back unharmed.
On Nov. 3, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 2. On board the small satellite was a little dog, Laika, the first animal to orbit Earth. However, Laika was not the first animal in space. The United States and the U.S.S.R. had been putting animals atop rockets since 1947.
The first spacecraft to land on the moon was Apollo 11 which landed on July 20, 1969. The shuttle was manned by Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin. The mission lasted a total of 8 days, 3 hours, 18 minutes and 35 seconds.
The shuttle consisted of 3 main parts:
The Command Module (CM)
The Service Module (SM)
The Lunar Module (LM)
The command module contained space for the 3 astronauts. This was the only part of the shuttle that actually landed back on Earth after the mission. The service module assisted the command module with power, oxygen, water and other supplies. Armstrong and Aldrin spent a total of 21 1/2 hours on the moon before reuniting with Collins who had stayed in the command module. They then returned to Earth and landed in the Pacific Ocean on July 24.
April 12 was already a huge day in space history twenty years before the launch of the first shuttle mission. On that day in 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to both enter space and orbit earth making a 108-minute orbital flight in his Vostok 1 spacecraft.
Wernher von Braun (1912–1977) was one of the most important rocket developers and champions of space exploration during the period between the 1930s and the 1970s. Before and during the Second World War he worked in the development of rockets in Germany then went on to work with NASA in the USA. There he was director of the new Marshall Space Flight Center and designer of the launch vehicle Saturn V , the superpropulsore that brought the Apollo mission to the moon in 1969 . According to NASA he was "undoubtedly the greatest scientist of rocketry and aerospace history."
Yuri Gagarin

(L) Neil A. Armstrong, Commander
(C) Michael Collins, Command Module Pilot
(R) Buzz Aldrin, Lunar Module Pilot
Apollo 11 Crew
Apollo 19 Take-Off
Brief Timeline of Rocket Sizes over Time
There are 4 main components to the basic design of a rocket:
The frame
The payload system
The guidance system
The propulsion system
The frame or basic structure of a rocket is similar to that of an airplane and is generally made of light, but strong materials such as aluminum and titanium. The 'skin' of the rocket surrounds 'hoops' and 'stringers' to form the rockets shape. This is then generally coated with a thermal protection layer to shield the rocket from the heat of friction in the air and to maintain the temperatures needed to store certain fuels.
The payload system of a rocket is the explosive charge carried by a rocket or missile. The earliest payload systems were fireworks for celebrating holidays. These were modified and developed to help launch rockets and shuttles into space.
The guidance system of a rocket may include a variety of sophisticated sensors, on-board computers, radars, and communication equipment to maneuver the rocket in flight. Many different methods have been developed to help direct rockets in flight however the most commonly used method in modern times is rotating the nozzle to redirect the spacecraft.
The propulsion system of a rocket makes up the majority of the rocket. There are 2 main types of propulsion systems: liquid rocket engines and solid rocket engines. The V2 used liquid rocket engines whereas Delta II and Titan III used solid engine strap-ons.

The two main countries in Rocket advancements over the years was Russia (USSR) and the US. This began with the space race.
The Space Race was a 20th-century (1955–1972) competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability. It began on August 2, 1955, when the Soviet Union responded to the United States announcement four days earlier of intent to launch artificial satellites by declaring they would also launch a satellite "in the near future". Ultimately Russia won the space race by putting the first earth-orbiting satellite, animal and person into space.
How Rockets Work
In early days of rocketry, the flight of objects such as fire arrows or other devices depended largely on luck rather than actual science. Now, Newton's laws of motion are the basic foundation for all rocket science. They are:
Every object remains in a constant state of rest or movement until compelled to change by forces acting on it.
Force is equal to the change in momentum per change in time.
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Like most engines, rockets need to burn fuel. Most rocket engines turn the fuel into hot gas. The engine pushes the gas out its back. The gas makes the rocket move forward.
The following are upcoming launches and landings as described by NASA on their website:

Date: July 11, 2014 -- 1:40 p.m. Eastern
Mission: Orbital 2 Commercial Resupply Services Mission to International Space Station
Description: Launching from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Orbital 2 will deliver cargo and crew supplies to the International Space Station. (Targeted launch time is 1:40:27 p.m. EDT)

Date: July 23, 2014
Mission: Progress 56
Description: Launching on a Russian Soyuz from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, Progress 56 will deliver cargo and crew supplies to the International Space Station.

No Earlier Than: July 25, 2014
Mission: Automated Transfer Vehicle-5
Description: The European Space Agency’s fifth Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), named “Georges Lemaître” in honor of the Belgian astronomer and physicist, will launch from Kourou in French Guiana to deliver cargo and crew supplies to the International Space Station.
A rocket is a vehicle that uses escaping gas to move. The first rockets known to man were used in China in the 1200's as fireworks. Since then, armies have used rockets in wars as weapons. Eventually they were improved and developed into what we have today.
In this project we hope to give you a more detailed
understanding of how rockets work.

Robert Goddard who built the first liquid-fuel rocket.
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