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Marketing - Chapter 31 - Branding, Packaging, and Labeling

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Kevin Krizan

on 4 May 2016

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Transcript of Marketing - Chapter 31 - Branding, Packaging, and Labeling

Chapter 31 - Branding, Packaging, and Labeling
Brand
- a name, term, design, symbol, or combination of these elements that identifies a business, product, or service, and sets it apart from its competitors
a brand strategy consistently and repeatedly tells customers and prospective customers why they should buy the company's products or services
may identify:
one product
family of related products
all products of a company
Brand Name - word or group of words that represent a product or service
(Toyota Highlander, Big Mac, Cherry Coca Cola)
Trade Name (corporate brand) - identifies and promotes a company or a division of a particular corporation
(Proctor & Gamble, Disney, Nike)
Elements of Branding
Elements of Branding
Brand mark - a unique symbol, coloring, lettering used to identify a business
Trade character - brand mark that has human characteristics (Aflac Duck, Cap'n Crunch,
Jolly Green Giant, Pillsbury Doughboy)
Trademark - brand name, brand mark, trade name, trade character, or combination that is registered with the federal government and given legal protection
Importance of Brands in Product Planning
Build product recognition and customer loyalty
Ensure quality and consistency
Change company or product image (Cadillac)
Capitalize on brand exposure (extend product lines)
Generating Brand Names
Create in house
Hire branding agencies, naming consultants, or public relations firms
Computer software programs
Types of Brands
National Brands (Producer brands) - owned by national manufacturers or by companies that provide services (Coca Cola, Hershey Foods, Ford, Apple, Nike)
generate the majority of sales for most product categories
65% appliances
78% food products
80% gasoline
100% cars
Types of Brands
Private distributor brands - developed and owned by wholesalers and retailers.
manufacturer's name may not appear on the product
Sears - Craftsman; Kenmore
Wal-Mart - Sam's Choice
more profitable for retailers
Types of Brands
Generic brands - products that do not carry a company identity


priced 30-50% lower than manufacturer brands
price 10-15% lower than private distributor brands
Branding Strategies
Brand extension - branding strategy that uses an existing brand name to promote a new or improved product
reduce risk of product failure by using an already established brand name
risk of overextending brand
Branding Strategies
Brand licensing - legal authorization by a brand owner to allow another company to use its brand, brand mark, or trade character for a fee
Branding Strategies
Mixed Brands - strategy of offering a combination of manufacturer, private distributor, and generic brand to consumers
Examples:
Whirlpool manufacturers its own line of refrigerators and also contracts to make Kenmore for Sears
Michelin manufactures its own brand of tires as well as Sears brand of tires
Branding Strategies
Co-branding - combines one or more brands in the manufacture of a product
capitalize on the popularity of other companies' goods and services
Examples: Reese's Puffs Cereal; Lay's w/KC Masterpiece
Package - the physical container or wrapping for a product (estimated 10% of price spent on package, design and development)
Packaging
Functions of Packaging
Selling the Product
Communicating Product Identity
Providing Information
Meeting Customer Needs
Protecting Consumers
Protecting the Product
Theft Reduction
Mixed bundling - packaging two or more different goods or services in one package (airfare and lodging package)
Price bundling - placing two or more similar products on sale for one package price (cheaper than purchased separately
Blisterpacks - packages with preformed plastic molds surrounding individual items arranged on a backing
Aseptic packaging - uses technology to keep foods fresh without refrigeration for long periods
Contemporary Packaging Issues
Environmental Packaging - environmentally sensitive designs
Cause packaging - use of package to promote social or political issues
Labeling
an informative tag, wrapper, seal, or imprinted message that is attached to a product or its package
Three types of label - brand label; descriptive label; grade label
Brand label
gives the brand name,
trademark, or logo
Descriptive label - gives information about the product's use, construction, care, performance, and other features (ingredients, date and storage information, proper use and care)
Beef Grades - 8 Grades (Top 5 for human consumption)

U.S. Prime – This is the
highest grade of beef with the most fat marbling
. This meat is very tender and only accounts for about
2.9%
of all graded beef. U.S. Prime is usually reserved for high end dining establishments. Because this beef has such a high level of fat marbling, it is excellent for dry heat cooking methods.

U.S. Choice – Choice beef is widely available to consumers in supermarkets and restaurants. This beef has a good amount of fat marbling, although less than U.S. Prime. U.S. Choice accounts for roughly
50%
of all graded beef. This beef can typically be cooked with either dry or moist heat methods without causing excessive dryness. U.S. Choice is an excellent economic alternative to U.S. Prime.

U.S. Select – Select beef is also widely available in the retail market. It is much more lean than U.S. Choice and tends to be less tender or juicy. U.S, Select was formerly labeled as “Good.” Due to the low fat content in this meat, it should be reserved for moist heat cooking methods to prevent drying.

U.S. Standard and U.S. Commercial – Standard and Commercial grades are very low in fat content and may be considerably less tender. When sold in the retail market they typically go ungraded or are labeled under the store brand name and sold for lower prices.

Utility, Cutter, and Canner Grades – These grades may be completely devoid of fat marbling or cut from older animals. These grades are typically reserved for making processed meat products and canned goods.
Grade label - states the quality of the product
USDA Beef Grades
Labeling Laws
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1966 - established mandatory labeling requirements (FDA and FTC)
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 - requires that labels give nutritional information (fat, carbs, protein, sodium, cholesterol, calories)
FDA requires health warnings on alcoholic beverages, cigarette packages, genetically engineered animals (voluntary for eng. animals)
Federal Trade Commission responsible for regulating labeling and monitoring false or misleading advertising
1992 - guidelines for environmental claims on labels
USDA - responsible for the following
Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 - guidelines and penalties for misuse of organic labels (produced without hormones, antibiotics, herbicides, chemicals)
Country of Origin Labeling Act of 2002 - country of origin label be placed on all fruits, vegetables, peanuts, meats, and fish
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