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Chapter 17: The Progressive Era

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Alyssa Kalski

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 17: The Progressive Era

The
Progressive
Era

Unit 5
Chapter 17

The Origins of Progressivism
Progressivism had 4 main goals:
- Protecting Social Welfare
- Promoting Moral Improvement
- Creating Economic Reform
- Fostering Efficiency
Progressive Movement
- an early 20th century reform movement seeking to return the control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life.
Protecting Social Welfare
-Improve the harsh conditions of industrialization through...
-
Social Gospel Movement
: based on belief that Christians have responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty
-
Settlement house
movement: a community center that provides
assistance in slum neighborhoods
-
YMCA
(Young Men's Christian Association) and
Salvation Army
: opened libraries, sponsored classes, opened soup kitchens, helped in nurseries
-
Florence Kelley
: became an advocate for improving the lives of women and children; chief inspector of factories in Illinois; help pass
Illinois Factory Act of 1893 (
prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours)
Promoting Moral Improvement
-Improve the lives of people through...
-
Prohibition
: the banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages... alcohol was thought of the undermine American morals
-
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
: prohibitionist group founded in Cleveland, 1874; sang and prayed in saloons and urged saloonkeepers to stop selling alcohol
-
Carrie Nation
: supported prohibition because her first husband was an alcoholic; worked for prohibition by destroying bars/saloons, bottles or alcohol, mirrors, windows; campaigned for laws banning liquor sales; arrested and jailed 30 times
Creating Economic Reform
-The Panic of 1893 lead Americans to question the capitalist economic system
-
Eugene V. Debs
, a socialist, commented on the uneven balance among big business, government, and ordinary people under the free-market system of capitalism
-Big business received favorable treatment from government officials and politicians, and could use its economic power to limit competition
-
Muckrakers
: magazine journalists or writers who exposed the corrupt side of business and public life in the early 1900s (examples: Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair); named by Theodore Roosevelt
Fostering Efficiency
-
Scientific management
: the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace
-
Frederick Winslow Taylor
used time and motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts
-
Henry Ford
used the assembly line process to speed up manufactuing; paid his workers more than normal ($5 per day) and made 8 hour workdays to attract workers and prevent strikes
Reforming Local Government

Reform at the State Level

Reforming Elections

Direct Election of Senators
-Cities had political machines, bribes, greed, fraud, etc
-Natural disasters caused reform in local government
-Robert M. La Follette, "Fighting Bob", was Wisconsin Governor, then Wisconsin Senator; as governor, he drove business out of government and treat them equally; major target was railroad industry- regulated rates, and forbade them to bribe state officials with free passes
-initiative:
a procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than by lawmakers
-referendum:
a procadure by which a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to a vote of the people
-recall:

a procedure for
removing a public official from office by a vote of the people
-
Seventeenth Amendmen
t: an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1913, that provides for the election for senators by the people rather than by state legislatures
Women in Public Life
-On farms, women cooked, cleaned, made clothes, raised livestock, plowed fields, and harvested crops
-By 20th century, 20% of women had jobs
-Women wanted reforms due to dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours
- Women in school and industry showed them that marriage was not their only alternative...they can go to college, get a job, and maintain their independence
-
NACW
: the National Association of Colored Women; a social service organization founded in 1896; managed nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens
-
Susan B. Anthony
was a leading proponent in women's suffrage
-
NAWSA
: the National American Woman Suffrage Association; an organization founded in 1890 to gain voting rights for women
-Women were angered that the 14th and 15th amendments gave African American men the right to vote, and women still could not vote
-Women came up with a 3 part strategy to earn suffrage:
1. Suffragist leaders tried to convince state legislators to grant suffrage for women
2. Women pursued court cases to test the 14th amendment
3. Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant suffrage for women
Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal
-
Theodore Roosevelt
: Republican President in 1901-1909; progressive views; wanted reforms and conservation; used the "bully pulpit" to influence news, media, and legislation
-
Square Deal
: President Roosevelt's program of progressive reforms designed to protect the common people against big business when they victimized workers/common people
-Roosevelt didn't believe that all trusts were evil, but he tried to curb ones that hurt the public interest
-Roosevelt settled the
1902 Coal Strike
in PA by arbitrating the situation...this lead to the federal government being expected to intervene on strikes threatening public welfare
-
Interstate Commerce Act
: a law, enacted in 1887, that established the federal government's right to supervise railroad activities and created the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) to do so
-
Elkins Act of 1903
: made it illegal for railroad officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular railroads
-
Hepburn Act of 1906
: limited the distribution of free railroad passes, a common form of bribery
-
Meat Inspection Act
: a law, enacted in 1906, that established strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers and created a federal meat-inspection program; brought to light by
Upton Sinclair's
The Jungle
-
Pure Food and Drug Act
: a law, enacted in 1906, to halt the sale of contaminated foods and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling
-
Conservation
: the planned management of natural resources, involving the protection of some wilderness areas and the development of others for the common good
-Roosevelt supported conservation and set aside over 200 million acres for reservations or national parks
-Roosevelt named
Gifford Pinchot
head of the US Forest Service
-Roosevelt failed to support civil rights for African Americans, but he did support individuals
-
WEB DuBois
: pushed for African Americans to fight for their rights; founded NAACP in 1909; entered forefront of civil rights movement
-
NAACP
: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
-
Booker T Washington
: wanted African Americans to accept discrimination wait for change by bettering themselves through hard work
Progressivism Under Taft
-Taft was Roosevelt's secretary of war, and R handpicked Taft to run for president, even though Taft didn't really want to be president
-As president, Taft pursued a progressive agenda, and received little credit for his presidential accomplishments (busted 90 trusts in 4 years)
-
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
: a set of tax regulations, enacted by Congress in 1909, that failed to significantly reduce tariff rates on manufactured goods
-Taft appointed
Richard Ballinger
as his secretary of the interior, who removed 1 million acres of forest/ mining land from the reserved list and returned them to public domain... Pinchot accused Ballinger of exploiting natural resources...
Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot
from the US Forest Service
-Republican Party split, conservatives stayed, progressives formed Bull Moose (Progressive) Party
-1912 Election: Roosevelt (Bull Moose), Taft (Republican),
Wilson (Democratic--winner)
, Debs (Socialist)
Wilson's New Freedom
-
Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
: a law that made certain monopolistic business practices illegal and protected the rights of labor unions and farm organizations
-
Federal Trade Commission
: set up by the Federal Trade Act of 1914; a federal agency established to investigate and stop unfair business practices
-
Underwood Tariff
: an act that substantially reduced tariffs for the first time since the Civil War
-
Sixteenth Amendment
: amendment that legalized a federal income tax, which provided government revenue by taxing individuals' earnings and corporate profits... larger incomes taxed at a higher rate
-
Federal Reserve System
: a national banking system, established in 1913, that controls the US money supply and the availability of credit in the country
-
Federal Reserve Act
: divided the nation into 12 districts and established a regional central bank to serve other banks in the district; federal reserve banks can issue a new currency and transfer funds to member-banks in trouble to save from closing
-Wilson was advanced with: banking, income tax, reducing tariffs, stopping unfair business principles... Economy. He needed to improve: treatment of African Americans, social reforms
-Women made 3 new developments to finally earn suffrage:
1. Increased activism of local groups
2. Use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm
3. Rebirth of the national movement under Carrie Chapman Catt
-
Nineteenth Amendment
: an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1920, that gives women the right to vote
-
Carrie Chapman Catt
: president of NAWSA; organized the New York's Women Suffrage Party; concentrated on 5 tactics:
1. Painstaking organization
2. Close ties between local, state, and national workers
3. Establishing a wide base of support
4. Cautious lobbying
5. Gracious, ladylike behavior
-President Wilson places
segregationists in charge of federal agencies
(which greatly expanded racial segregation)
-Wilson said he would speak out against lynching to gain support of NAACP, then went back on his word by
opposing anti lynching legislation
-Wilson appointed s
egregationists to his cabinet
Full transcript