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Acute Mastitis

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Karen Chung

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Acute Mastitis

By Thu Pham and Karen Chung Thank you for listening! Treatment Bibliography Websites:
TCMWell.com (2010) Prevention of Acute Mastitis Retrieved on 01/10/12 from: http://www.tcmwell.com/TCMAndLife/TCMFemale/Prevention-of-acute-mastitis.html

Suzanne R Trupin, MD (2012) Breast Infection (Cont.) Retrieved on 03/10/12 from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/breast_infection/page12_em.htm#prevention

(2012) Breastfeeding – Dealing with Mastitis Retrieved on 06/10/12 from: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Breastfeeding_dealing_with_mastitis

(2011) Floxapen Retrieved on 08/10/12 from: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/infections/medicines/floxapen.htm

(2009) Cephalexin Retrieved on 04/10/12 from: http://www.drugs.com/cephalexin.html

MedBroadcast Clinical Team (2012) Mastitis Retrieved on 17/09/12 from: http://chealth.canoe.ca/condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=0&relation_id=0&disease_id=326&page_no=1

(2012) Mastitis – Symptoms Retrieved on 17/09/12 from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Mastitis/Pages/Symptoms.aspx

Nordqvist, Christian (2009) What Is Mastitis? What causes Mastitis? Retrieved on: 17/09/12 from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/163876.php

Mastitis &Blcoked Ducts (2012) Symptons and Treatments for Mastitis. Retrieved on 16/10/12 from : http://www.bellybelly.com.au/breastfeeding/blocked-ducts-and-mastitis

Mastitis Pathology (2012) Major Mastitis-Causing Pathogens. Retrieved on 20/10/12 from: http://classes.ansci.illinois.edu/ansc438/mastitis/pathogens.html

MNT (2009) What Is Mastitis? What Causes Mastitis. Retrieved on 17/09/12 from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/163876.php

Mastitis (2012). Retrieved on 02/09/12 from: http://www.herbs2000.com/disorders/mastitis.htm

Baby Centre (2012) Mastitis. Retrived on 02/09/12 from: http://www.babycenter.in/baby/breastfeeding/problemsandsolutions/mastitis/#4 Acute Mastitis What is Acute Mastitis? What is Acute Mastitis? Treatment
Acute Mastitis should be treated as soon as possible to avoid further complications. If milk ducts are blocked, the mother should ensure the baby is feeding from the affect breast and emptying the breast during each feed. Frequently emptying breasts can avoid exposure to bacteria and shorten time of infection. Adequate rest and keeping hydrated is essential for treating acute mastitis. The mother can also consider applying a gentle massage to the affected breast to assist in feeding. Another method to reduce pain in breasts is for the breastfeeding mother to apply a warm cloth to the affected breast for 15 minutes and then feed the baby. After emptying the breasts, the mother then applies a cold cloth to the same breast for 10 minutes.

Infectious acute mastitis cannot be treated without antibiotics. Oral antibiotics can be used to eradicate the bacteria causing the infection, therefore treating the disease.
Antibiotics that can be used to treat Acute Mastitis:
•Cephalexin Flucloxacillin Flucloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic used to cure illnesses caused by bacteria. Flucloxacillin is part of the penicillin family. Flucloxacillin treats bacteria-caused diseases by stopping the bacteria from forming its cell wall. The cell wall is essential as it blocks foreign substances from entering and holds the cell structure together.

Although Flucloxacillin comes from the penicillin family, it is still able to kill bacteria that are resistant towards penicillin. Penicillin can become ineffective in the presence of an enzyme called penicillinase, however, Flucloxacillin is not affected by this enzyme.

Common side effects of Flucloxacillin include:
• Diarrhoea
• Nausea and/or Vomiting

Some uncommon side effects are:
• Rash
• Hives

Other very rare side effects that affect less than 1 in 10,000 people include:
• Allergic Reaction
• Fever
• Inflammation of large intestines.
• Jaundice
• Hepatitis
• Pain in muscles or joints.
• Uneven number of white blood cells or platelets. Cephalexin Cephalexin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria within our body. It kills the bacteria by damaging its cell wall, forcing it to break apart which eventually kills the bacteria. Cephalexin tablets or capsules should be stored away from light and at room temperature. Some signs of allergy of Cephalexin include hives, difficulty in breathing and swelling face, lips, tongue or throat.

Some serious side effects include:
•Yellowing Skin
•Dark-coloured Urine
•Easy bruising
Other side effects are:
•Pain in Joints
•Vaginal Itching
•Oral Thrush
•Indigestion Prevention Breastfeeding women are more prone to mastitis than other women. In order to prevent mastitis, people should stay hygienic and wash hands thoroughly before and after touching breasts and keep breast area clean. Women should also ensure the baby is well-positioned and attached to the breast correctly when breastfeeding, and to breastfeed often but for short periods of time. People should also wear loose, comfortable clothes and avoid applying any chemical and artificial substances on breasts. Thank you for listening! By Thu Pham and Karen Chung

Staphyloccus aureus produces many enzymes/toxins, it also produces hyaluronidase which allows the pathogen to invade tissues although it does resists the immune system and live inside phagocytic cells. Generally, staphyloccus aim is to decrease milk production and increases somatic cell count.

Coliforms are also one of many pathogens that cause transient acute mastitis. The organisms which cause mastitis include Esherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Citrobacter. They are known to cause acute mastitis as they produce endotoxin, which is a toxin associated with Gram-negative bacteria, examples are the organisms above and is a structural molecule of that bacteris that is recognized by the immune system. Acute Mastitis is a condition that affects mainly women, from 10 – 20% and about one week after giving birth, up until the baby is about 4 months old. This does not necessarily need to affect lactating women but also women in general. Although acute mastitis will not only harm patients health, but also to the growth of baby adverse. The pathogen that causes Acute Mastitis is commonly known as the staphylococcus aureus and coliforms. Transmission The only way acute mastitis can be transmitted is via small wounds in the nipples in which bacteria have the advantage to gain entry into the tissues in the breast which then causes the infection resulting in the production of symptoms. Some may have had acute mastitis or mastitis to which from cracked nipples and the likewise the bacteria have access through the crack or fissure in the nipple into the lymphatic system of the breast. Acute Mastitis only happens when there is an inflammation in the breast tissue. Sometimes people mistaken acute mastitis to a blocked duct, the differences between these two are that blocked duct does not need to be treated with antibiotics and women generally feels pain, and has a swollen but firm breast. Whereas acute mastitis, it is way more painful than a blocked duct, but either way they are both painful. In some cases, a blocked duct can also become a mastitis which makes things even more complicated and painful then it already is. Signs and Symptoms Women who are prone to get this usually have sick side effects. Acute mastitis usually affects one breast, but mastitis alone can affect both the breast of a woman. The symptoms and effects of acute mastitis may cause the breast to enlarge or appear red and shiny. It may also result in pains or hardening or the breast, making it swollen or hot, to which the patient will experience a burning sensation when they are breastfeeding. The patient may also experience flu-like symptoms aches, shivering, chills, tiredness, pain, anxiety, and stress, feel sick or have a fever. They may also experience pain caused by the swelling of breast tissues. Breast tenderness, redness, enlargement or sensitivity is common for women with acute mastitis. Liquid or pus may also discharge from the nipples, changing the sensation of the breast. There may also be a lump in breasts and the infected nipple may also discharge pus that contains streaks of blood. Images:
http://www.ricklinforth.com/images/periductal_mastitis.jpg?579 Questions
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