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Chapter 3: Migration
Transcript of Chapter 3: Migration
Why do people migrate?
Where Do People Migrate?
What is migration?
Movement away from home for a short period
Movement away from home for a longer period.
Farming in the US
A change in residence intended to be permanent
emigration vs. immigration
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence)
Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence)
3.1 Exit slip
Choose one type of cyclic or periodic movement and then think of a specific example of the kind of movement changes both the home and the destination. How do these places change as a result of this cyclic or periodic movement?
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Movers have no choice but to relocate
Atlantic slave trade, Trail of Tears, Nazi Germany, USSR
Irish Potato famine, Irish Catholics
Migrant weighs options and choices chooses to move
Not always clear-cut
Irish immigrants to America, Gold Rush, etc.
Men are more mobile and move more than women.
Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide
Whether to move
Where to go
There are 3 basic kinds of push & pull factors
: Many migrants settle closer to their old home than they originally contemplate
Brazil - village, town, city, metropolis
St. Louis, Memphis
Chain migration (kinship links)
Ravenstein’s Laws (Gravity Model)
Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration.
The majority of migrations move a short distance.
World Migration Routes Since 1700
Regional Scale Migration Flows
Migration to neighboring countries
short term economic opportunities
reconnect with cultural groups across borders
flee political conflict or war
Islands of development:
foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated
Migration for Economic Opportunity
Chinese migration in late 1800s and 1900s throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance
Migration to Reconnect with Cultural Groups
Migration of about 700,000 Jews to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948
Forced migration of 600,000 Palestinian Arabs after 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine)
National Migration Flows
Also known as internal migration
eg. US, Russia, Mexico
Gold Rush (1849) and Donner Party just the most dramatic examples of hardship.
Loss of Industrial Jobs in east compliments increase in Sunbelt service sector (biotech, communications).
Migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides
Have short term work visas
Send remittances to home country (map)
People who flee across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion
How Do Governments Affect Migration?
– laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country
Oriental Exclusion Act (1882-1907)
A country uses
to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.
Criminal Records, poor health, etc.
Types of Refugees
Internally Displaced Persons
Palestinians & Syrians to Jordan
Rwandans back from Zaire (DRC)
Migration Waves in the US
Early 20th Century
Mostly from Western and Northern Europe Early
Great Britain, Germany, France
Later Southern and Eastern Europe
Italy, Russia, Poland
Peak in 1910
Political Instability (WWI)
Shift in economy (manufacturing)
Isolationism due to conflict in Europe
Saw some races as inferior
Quotas began in 1921
3% of nationals in the US
Post - 9/11
33 countries as countries where al-Qaeda or other terrorist groups operate
detained anyone from one of these countries who enters the United States looking for asylum
Mexico and Haiti
170,000 immigrants per year from countries outside of the Western Hemisphere
120,000 in the Americas
Refugee policies and guest worker policies allowed many more immigrants than these limitations
Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.
Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
Vietnam, Cambodia, Uganda
Armed Conflict and Civil War
Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Afghanistan
Culture and Traditions
India and Pakistan, Israel, S. Africa
Late 20th Century
Philippines, India, China, Korea
Mexico, Haiti, Cuba
End of Cold War
Shift in economy (Tertiary)