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Chapter 3: Migration

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Matthew Wahl

on 6 October 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 3: Migration

Chapter 3: Migration
Essential Question
Why do people migrate?
Where Do People Migrate?
Chapter Summary
Essential Question
What is migration?
Movement
Cyclic movement
:
Movement away from home for a short period
Commuting
Seasonal movement
Nomadism

Movement
Periodic movement:

Movement away from home for a longer period.
Migrant labor
Farming in the US
Transhumance
Follow livestock
Military service

Migration
Migration
:
A change in residence intended to be permanent
emigration vs. immigration

Migration
International migration:
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence)

Migration
Internal migration:
Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence)


3.1 Exit slip
Choose one type of cyclic or periodic movement and then think of a specific example of the kind of movement changes both the home and the destination. How do these places change as a result of this cyclic or periodic movement?
-- Check email for Padlet

Forced migration:
Movers have no choice but to relocate
Atlantic slave trade, Trail of Tears, Nazi Germany, USSR
 Irish Potato famine, Irish Catholics
Human Trafficking

Voluntary Migration
Migrant weighs options and choices chooses to move
Not always clear-cut
Irish immigrants to America, Gold Rush, etc.
Men are more mobile and move more than women.

Voluntary Migration
Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide
Whether to move
Where to go
There are 3 basic kinds of push & pull factors 
ECONOMIC 
CULTURAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL 

Distance decay
: Many migrants settle closer to their old home than they originally contemplate

Gravity Model
Step migration
Brazil - village, town, city, metropolis
Intervening opportunity
St. Louis, Memphis
Chain migration (kinship links)


Ravenstein’s Laws (Gravity Model)
Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration.
The majority of migrations move a short distance.
World Migration Routes Since 1700
Regional Scale Migration Flows
Migration to neighboring countries
short term economic opportunities
reconnect with cultural groups across borders
flee political conflict or war

Islands of development:
Places where
foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated

Nigeria, Ghana

Migration for Economic Opportunity
Chinese migration in late 1800s and 1900s throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance
European Colonies

Migration to Reconnect with Cultural Groups
Migration of about 700,000 Jews to then-Palestine between 1900 and 1948
Forced migration of 600,000 Palestinian Arabs after 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine)

National Migration Flows
Also known as internal migration
eg. US, Russia, Mexico
Russification

Interregional Migrations
Gold Rush (1849) and Donner Party just the most dramatic examples of hardship.
Loss of Industrial Jobs in east compliments increase in Sunbelt service sector (biotech, communications).

Guest Workers
Migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides

Have short term work visas
Send remittances to home country (map)

Refugees
People who flee across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion

Essential Question
How Do Governments Affect Migration?
Legal Restrictions
Immigration laws
– laws that restrict or allow migration of certain groups into a country
Oriental Exclusion Act (1882-1907)

A country uses
selective immigration
to bar people with certain backgrounds from entering.
Criminal Records, poor health, etc.
Types of Refugees
Internally Displaced Persons
Hurricane Katrina
Asylum
Palestinians & Syrians to Jordan
Repatriation
Rwandans back from Zaire (DRC)
Migration Waves in the US
Early 20th Century
Mostly from Western and Northern Europe Early
Great Britain, Germany, France
Later Southern and Eastern Europe
Italy, Russia, Poland
Peak in 1910
Push Factors
Political Instability (WWI)
Overpopulation
Religion
Pull Factors
Shift in economy (manufacturing)
WWI
Isolationism due to conflict in Europe
Saw some races as inferior
Quotas began in 1921
3% of nationals in the US
Post - 9/11
33 countries as countries where al-Qaeda or other terrorist groups operate
detained anyone from one of these countries who enters the United States looking for asylum
Mexico and Haiti
Post wWII
170,000 immigrants per year from countries outside of the Western Hemisphere
120,000 in the Americas
Refugee policies and guest worker policies allowed many more immigrants than these limitations
Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.
Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
Political Circumstances
Vietnam, Cambodia, Uganda
Armed Conflict and Civil War
Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Afghanistan
Environmental Concerns
Katrina
Culture and Traditions
India and Pakistan, Israel, S. Africa
Late 20th Century
Asia
Philippines, India, China, Korea
Former USSR
Latin America
Mexico, Haiti, Cuba
Push Factors
End of Cold War
Poverty
Population Pressure
Religious Strife
Pull Factors
Shift in economy (Tertiary)
Service Industry
Technology Jobs
Full transcript