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Middle East

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Jodie Clayton

on 9 July 2013

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Transcript of Middle East

Middle East
European Claims in Muslim Regions

Stresses in Muslim Regions
Stresses in Muslim Regions (cont'd)
Problems for the Ottoman Empire
Problems for the Ottoman Empire (cont'd)
many officials rejected changes that were inspired by a foreign culture; for their part repressive
sultans
, rulers of the Ottoman Turkish empire, rejected reform & tried to rebuild the autocratic power
in 1890, a group of liberals formed a movement called the Young Turks; they insisted reform was the only way to save the empire
in 1908 the Young Turks overthrew the sultan
Egypt Seeks to Modernize
Persia and the European Powers
in the 1800s, the Qajar shahs, who ruled Persia from 1794 to 1925, exercised absolute power
they did take steps to introduce reforms & experimented with a liberal constitution; however, reform did not save Persia from Western imperialism
in the 1900s, both Russia & Britain plotted for control of Persian oil fields
Egypt Seeks to Modernize (cont'd)
Ali's successors lacked his skills & Egypt came under foreign control
French entrepreneur, Ferdinand de Lesseps, organized a company to build the Suez Canal
in 1875, the British bought shares, gaining a controlling interest in the canal
in 1882, Egyptian nationalists revolted against foreign influence; Britain made Egypt a protectorate
under British influence, Egypt continued to modernize; however,nationalist discontent simmered & flared into protests & riots
by the 1700s all three Muslim empires, the Ottomans, the Safavids, & the Mughals were declining
central governments had lost control over powerful groups
some Muslim scholars & religious leaders allied with the state; others helped create discontent against the government
Usman dan Fodio led the struggle to reform Muslim practices in northern Africa

Muhammad Ahmad
announced that he was the

Mahdi
, the long-awaited savior of the faith
the Mahdi and his followers strongly resisted expansion by the British into the region.
the Wahhabi movement in Arabia, rejected the schools of theology and law that had emerged into the Ottoman empire
European powers won treaties giving them favorable trading terms through diplomacy & military threats
by the early 1800s, ambitious
pashas
, or provincial rulers had increased their power
subject peoples in North Africa, Eastern Europe, & the Middle East threatened to break away
the Ottomans suppressed these uprisings, but Egypt slipped out of their control
European states were seeking to benefit from the crumbling Ottoman empire
Ottoman rulers reorganized the bureaucracy and system of tax collection
they built railroads, improved education, & hired Europeans to train a modern military
the reforms also brought improved medical care and revitalized farming
better healthcare resulted in rapid population growth that increased competition for the best land & led to unrest
in the 1890s, nationalism was starting tensions between Turkish nationalists and minority peoples who were seeking their own states
these tensions triggered a
genocide
, a deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group, of the Armenians
when the Armenians protested against repressive Ottoman policies, the sultan had tens of thousands of them slaughtered; in the next 25 years, between 600,000 & 1.5 million Armenians were killed or died from disease & starvation

in the early 1800s, Egypt was a semi-independent province
Egypt's success was due to
Muhammad Ali
, an ambitious soldier appointed governor of Egypt by the Ottomans
Muhammad Ali a.k.a. the "father of modern Egypt" introduced a number of political & economic reforms
Ali increased Egyptian participation in world trade
He also brought Western military experts to Egypt to help him build a well-trained army
He conquered Arabia, Syria, & Sudan; before he died in 1849, he had set Egypt to becoming a major Middle Eastern power
they persuaded the Persian government to grant them
concessions
,or special rights given to foreign powers
when Russia & Britain sent troops into Persia to protect their interests, the Persian nationalists were outraged
the nationalist included two different groups; some Persians wanted to move swiftly to adopt Western ways & others, led by Muslim religious leaders , condemned the Persian government & Western influences
Muhammad Ahmad
Muhammad Ali
Full transcript