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Pass Assessment Task 3

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James Bottrill

on 4 November 2014

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Transcript of Pass Assessment Task 3

Beta Blockers
A group of drugs that works by blocking the Beta Receptors, which are found on the cells of the heart muscles, and other smooth muscle tissues such as the eye, kidneys, uterus, intestines, liver, blood vessels and Skeletal Muscles. They work by stopping Adrenaline from reaching its destination, the beta receptors. Beta Blockers are not banned substances, only restricted. They are only tested for in sports where they would give an advantage.

James Bottrill
Trent Glynn
Cameron Lambourne
Dimitri kokokiris
Blood Doping
Blood Doping is a practice whereby the number of red blood cells is increased for the purpose of enhancing athletic performance. Blood Doping is done by removing blood, often almost a litre, several weeks before competition and freezing it. The body then repairs itself by regeneration all the lost blood cells, so it is back to normal. Then, 1-2 days before competition, the blood is injected back into the body, giving the athlete a very high level of red blood cells.
Drugs In Sport
Anabolic Steroids
Anabolic steroids are a synthetic derivative of testosterone, the male sex hormone. They come as both oral tablets, and fluid, for injections. Anabolic Steroids have medical uses where there is a hormonal problem, for example delayed puberty. They are usually abused in sport to enhance image or to performance. Sometimes, the doses taken by abusers can be up to 100 times the safe amount. The drugs do not work instantaneously and must be combined with training for their effectiveness to be maximized.
Pass Assessment Task 3
Drugs in Sport
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Performance Enhancing Drugs are substances that can improve an athlete's performance in a particular sport or activity. Drug use in sport, or doping, carries serious health risks and jeopardize an athlete's future performance.
EPO is a hormone created naturally by the body in the kidneys. EPO’s natural function is to regulate red blood cell production is the body. When abused in sport, EPO can be used to give a similar effect to blood doping, except quicker. As EPO is a relatively new drug, testing only became possible in 2000.
Performance Benefits
EPO is used to produce a higher count of red blood cells produced by the bone marrow which is most useful in endurance sports. This promotes better oxygen transportation which leads to faster aerobic respiration. This allows the athlete to work at a higher rate of exercise without the need to use the anaerobic energy systems which causes fatigue through the production of lactic acid.

Advantaged Sports
EPO would advantage endurance
sports due to the higher rate of aerobic respiration it produces. Sports in which EPO would be most beneficial from include endurance cycling, in which there have been many well documented cases, swimming and running (triathlon and separate events), rowing, boxing and skiing.

Side Affects
Side effects of EPO include increased risks of heart attack, stroke and pulmonary or cerebral embolism. This is proved through lance Armstrongs contraction of advanced testicular cancer which spread to his brain, lungs and abdomen.
Narcotics are types of drugs that
are derived from the opium poppy and include the commonly known painkiller, morphine. The medical use of narcotics is to give relief to patients who are in extreme pain. This can allow an athlete to perform through pain or when injured. Although they are sometimes used illegally in sport, they do not have any performance enhancing qualities.

Performance Benefits
This results in the heart working more efficiently, which causes the heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tremors and sometimes anxiety levels to be lowered. Beta Blockers have also been known to have a relaxing effect on muscles.
Sports It Would Advantage
The sports that the illegal use of this drug would advantage are sports where accuracy and calmness are needed, such as shooting, archery, bobsleigh, diving, luge, modern pentathlon and ski jumping. These are also the only sports in which beta blockers are tested for by ASADA.

Side Effects
Performance Benefits
Beta Blockers have a number of negative side effects such as diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, rash, blurred vision, muscle cramps and fatigue. Beta Blockers also affect the Central Nervous System, causing Headache, Depression, Nightmares, Hallucinations, dizziness and confusion. As Beta Blockers are designed to lower the heart rate, they have been known to cause heart failure in some users of the drug, illicit or not. Sexual Disfunction and shortness of breath may occur when the user has other conditions such as asthma. If the drug is stopped using suddenly, there may be withdrawal symptoms or worsening chest pain, heart attacks and death
Narcotics are banned as playing or competing
with an injury can make the injury worse and this would detrimental to a person's long term health.

Performance Benefits
As Red Blood cells are responsible for the transportation of Oxygen around the body, there is more oxygen in the body, and the athletes VO2 max (aerobic capacity) is increased, as well as their endurance allowing them to exercise for longer and push harder in the increased time.
Sports it would advantage
As Blood Doping increases endurance, it is
beneficial to athletes participating in endurance sports such as Cross country Skiing, distance running (e.g. Marathon, 10K), triathlons and cycling.

Sports it Would Advantage
Side Effects
Narcotics would advantage any athlete in any sport where they need to compete while in pain or whilst injured or ill. Although, playing or competing with an injury can make the injury worse and this would be detrimental to a person's long term health.

As Blood Doping increases the amount of red
blood cells in a persons body, their blood thickens dramatically, resulting in the thickening of the blood. This can lead to strokes, heart attack and pulmonary or cerebral embolism. Also if the blood is not handled correctly during the transfusion, it can lead to serious health risks, or virus contraction through contaminated blood.

Side Effects
The side effects of Narcotics, other than making an injury worse can include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, addiction, drowsiness, mood disturbances and hypertension (high blood pressure).
A diuretic is a drug that is used to remove excess water and salt from the body system. Diuretics are also known as water pills and are used medicinally for treating high blood pressure, cardiac failure and swelling and bloating. However this loss of water has a number of other effects which can aid performance.

Performance Benefits
Performance Benefits
Diuretics are used in sport illegally, but they do not enhance one’s performance. If anything they de-enhance one's performance by causing dehydration. However, as diuretics get rid of water in the body, they can be used to lose weight fast and they can be used to mask the presence of illegal drugs in someones system by diluting the drug and aiding in its excretion (removal) from the body. Also, as they rid the body of any excess water they can be used to aid definition for bodybuilders.
They help to build muscle and may assist in recovery from training and injury. Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble testosterone, a hormone which is produced males and, to a much lesser extent in females.
Sports it Would Advantage
The Sports in which Diuretics may be used are horse riding, for jockeys to lose weight, Boxing, for weight loss to make different weight classes, Rowing to become lighter and in body-building, to increase definition and get rid of any excess water. But, in saying this, diuretics may be used in absolutely any sport to mask the presence of drugs in an athlete's system, however it would be ill advised to use in endurance events due to the dehydrating effect.
Diuretics have many side effects, some can even be fatal. Most of diuretics side effects are similar to that of dehydration. The side effects of diuretics include a dry mouth, thirst, weakness, drowsiness, muscle pains or cramps, confusion, seizures, muscular fatigue, hypotension (low blood pressure), oliguria, which is a decrease or absence of urine production, tachycardia, an very high heart rate and Gastrointestinal disturbances. Also, low levels of salt caused by some diuretics has been associated with death and brain damage in older people. Use of Diuretics can alter electrolyte levels, as salt is removed from the system. Gout has also been known to be caused by a buildup of uric acid which diuretics can cause.
Side Effects
Sports it would advantage
Side Effects
Use of Anabolic Steroids have many side
effects, both short term and long term. The short term side effects of steroid use are acne, permanent baldness, aggressiveness, facial hair in women, high cholesterol levels, deepening of voice and menstrual problems in women. The long term effects of anabolic steroid use are diabetes, heart problems such as abnormal heart rhythms, high blood pressure and heart attack, development of breast tissue in males, permanent liver damage and infertility.

Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)
Is known as what is called a designer steroid and has been manipulated in a lab in order to avoid detection. It was made by a skilled organic chemist called Patrick Arnold for the sole purpose of cheating in sport. It is a very strong steroid that effectively produces a very similar anabolic effect to naturally occurring steroids.

Human Growth Hormone
THG’s desired benefits for Athletes are much the same as that of anabolic steroids. The effects that THG has on the body are increased muscle mass, strength and bulk, faster muscle recovery and reduced muscle catabolism, which is the breakdown of muscle following intense exercise, allowing the user to work harder more often.

A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that is central to normal growth and development as it is anabolic, meaning that it accelerated protein synthesis and aids the breaking down of fat stores (metabolism). It is used in sport due to its Anabolic effect on the body, meaning that when it is injected the effects it has are similar to that of anabolic steroids.

Sports it Would Advantage
The sports that THG would benefit are much the same as other drugs with an anabolic effect. The sports in which athletes using THG would be advantaged are power sports such as sprinting, throwing in track and field, weightlifting, american football, Rugby and Body Building.

Side Effects
Although not much is known about the side effects of THG use, it is speculated that they are much the same as that of anabolic steroids, given the 2 drugs similarity. The believed side effects are Acne, Baldness in men, liver disorders, increased aggression, mood swings, hypertension (high blood pressure), Gynecomastia (abnormally large mammary glands) and hirsutism (male hair growth in females.
Performance Benefits
HGH has the desired benefits for an
athlete as anabolic steroids and is used for much the same effect. HGH is believed to to reduce body fat, resulting in a leaner composition, provide injury resistance by aiding muscle recovery and it is believed to increase muscle mass. However, none of these benefits are scientifically proven. HGH, however, has proven benefits when used in conjunction with anabolic steroids and is therefore a common use for the drug.

Sports it would Advantage
HGH is mainly used by athletes in need of power and strength, and so advantages sports such as weightlifting, bodybuilding and American Football. The sports advantaged by this drug also are advantaged by anabolic steroids and THG.

Side Effects
Stimulants act on the Central Nervous System (CNS) and speed up parts of the brain and body. They can make a person feel more alert, and can mask feelings of fatigue. Some Examples of stimulant drugs used in sport to enhance performance are caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines and Ephedra. Some medications containing stimulants include Sudafed (pseudoephedrine) and Demazin (phenylephrine).

Performance Benefits
Like all drugs that stimulate growth hormones
for an anabolic effect, HGH as many side effects, some quite serious. These side effects are gigantism, which occurs when used in younger athletes and is an abnormal growth in height, Acromegaly, occurring when it is used in adults which involves the growth and swelling of body parts, hypothyroidism, which is when there is a low production of the thyroid hormone resulting in altered metabolism, Cardiomyopathy, which is a disease of the cardiac muscle increasing the chance of cardiac death, Cardiac Failure, Hypercholesterolemia, which is basicly high cholesterol, ischemic heart disease, which is a lack of blood getting to the heart, Myopathies, diseases affecting muscle function and CJB (mad cow disease), can be contracted if HGH is obtained from corpses instead of a lab. Some other side effects are arthritis, diabetes, impotence, osteoporosis and menstrual irregularities if used by women

Stimulants have many qualities that can advantage
an athlete. The effects vary with the strength of the stimulant and the amount taken. Caffeine has many benefits for athletes which last for 30 minutes to 2 hours. These effects are improved concentration and muscle contractility, enhanced alertness, reduced fatigue and increased time to exhaustion. Cocaine’s effects on performance are limited to, in very low doses, increased alertness. Amphetamines have largely the same effect on performance as caffeine, but with very negative side effects. As a result of this, Amphetamine use is becoming more uncommon. Ephedra does not have any effect on performance unless taken in large doses, where its effects are limited and its side effects are very negative.

Sports it Would Advantage
Stimulants can advantage most sports,
except where calmness and steadiness is needed, such as shooting and archery. Stimulants can benefit athletes participating endurance sports such as marathons and triathlons as they can delay the onset of fatigue. Stimulants would also be advantageous to athletes participating in power sports such as weightlifting and sprints due to the stimulating effect that they have on the various body systems and parts, such as increase in pulse rate and blood flow. Stimulants would also advantage athletes participating in contact sports such as rugby league and boxing due to the triggering effect they have on aggression levels in users.
Side Effects
Stimulants have a wide range of side effects which can adversely affect performance. Across the range of stimulants that are used in sport, there are many common side effects which can include Abdominal Pain, diarrhoea, dehydration, restlessness, anxiety and irritability, headaches, (hypertension) high blood pressure ,interference with recovery and sleep patterns, palpitations, increased muscle tension. Other side effects can include seizures, abnormalities in heart rhythm, stroke, hyperthermia (raised body temperature), insomnia, dizziness, vomiting, confusion, heart Attack and cerebral hemorrhage (ruptured blood vessel in the head).

Anabolic steroids would advantage sports that need strength, power and build. These would include weightlifting, Athletics throwing events, bodybuilding, football and sprinting.
Why People Use HGH
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