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Motivation and job satisfaction
Transcript of Motivation and job satisfaction
What is motivation?
The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.
The three key elements are
Intensity > How hard the person tries
Direction > That benefits the organization
Persistence > How long a person can maintain effort
Job characteristics model
Alternative work arrangements
Two or more individuals spliting a 40h work week
Benefits e.g. opens opportunity to hire skilled workers and increases flexibility for employees > increases motivation and satisfaction
Employees do their work remotely at least 2 days a week using computers linked to their office
Benefits e.g. larger labour pool from which to select, higher productivity, improved morals and reduced office space costs
How to motivate employees?
What are the barriers of motivation?
How do we motivate our employees at Baba Computers?
MOTIVATION LEADS TO SATISFACTION
Baba Computers: Laura, Elfadil, Baba & Kira
Accessed 23.1.2014 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/2610290401003.png
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Accessed 23.1.2014 http://www.isical.ac.in/~ddroy/workmoti.html
Accessed 23.1.2014 http://www.mykelly.ca/eprise/main/web/ca/mykelly/en/tip_feb10_employee_motivation
Rollinson, Derek. Broadfield, Aysen. Edwards, David J. 1998. Organisational behaviour and analysis: An integrated approach. Addison Wesley. Chapter 5.
Judge, Timothy A. Robbins, Stephen P. 2008. Essentials of organizational behavior. Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 5 and 6.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Important to understand on which level of the hierarchy the employee is
Two-Factor theory by Herzberg
"What do people want from their jobs?"
Eliminating the dissatisfaction factors does not guarantee satisfaction
McClealland's theory of needs
Need of achievement
Need for power
Need for affiliation
Clear and difficult goals lead to higher levels of employee productivity
Set individual goals > same goal does not motivate everyone
People work better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing towards their goals
Self-generated feedback has been shown to be more powerful motivator than externally generated feedback
The theory however does not address absenteeism, turnover or satisfaction
Equity theory/organizational justice
Effort that we put into our job and what we get out of our job affects motivation
Employees compare their jobs inputs and outputs to those of others
If we perceive our ratio to be equal to that of relevant other a state of equity is said to exist
When there is inequity:
Change their inputs
Don't put as much effort
Change their outcomes
When paid on a piece-rate basis one can produce higher quantity of units of lower quality
Distort perceptions of self
"I used to think that I worked as hard as others but then I realized that I work harder."
Distort perceptions of others
"Mike's job isn't as desirable as I previously thought."
Choose a different referent
"I am not as efficient as Ann but compared to Matt I am doing way better."
Leave the field
Quit the job
To promote fairness in the workplace managers should consider openly sharing information on how allocation decisions are made
Perceived fairness of process used to determine outcome
Perceived fairness of outcome
Perceive the degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect
Expectancy theory by Vroom
Employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe:
Effort will lead to good performance appraisal
Good appraisal will lead to good organizational rewards (bonus, salary increase and promotion)
Rewards will satisfy the employees personal goals
The theory focuses on three relationships
Theory X and Theory Y
Cognitive evaluation theory
Management by objectives
How to motivate by changing the environment?
How can jobs be redesigned?
Periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another
Increasing the number and variety of tasks
Increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work
Increases employee's freedom, independence, responsibility and provides feedback
Alternative work arrangements
Allows employee's freedom over when they arrive at work and when they leave
Benefits e.g. reduce absenteeism, increase productivity, reduces overtime expenses.
NOTE! Not applicable to every job
To increase their commitment to the organization success
Involve workers into the decisions that affect them, increase their autonomy and control over their work life's > Employee's will become
committed to the organization
more satisfied with their jobs
Employee involvement programs differ among countries
Examples of employee involvement programs
The management share decision making with their employee's
Workers are represented by small group of employees
Two most common forms
Employee's can be paid in many ways
Pay more and you may get better qualified and more motivated employees who will stay in the organization
Variable pay programs
piece rate plans, bonuses, profit sharing, gain sharing and employee stock ownership plans
Skill base pay
How many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do
For management the skill base pay gives flexibility
People gain a better understanding of each others job
Facilitates communication across the organization
Barriers to work motivation
Features of the job that remove the likelihood that it can satisfy a persons needs
E.g. not empowering, not knowing the level of the employee's skills, salary too small
Too high, low or unmeasurable
E.g. Do your best > what is your best?
Lack of individual and team respect
Manager should be aware of what its employees do
Family, friends, unions and colleagues
E.g. An dissatisfied colleague takes you down also and decreases your motivation towards your work
We set challenging goals
Involve them in the decision making > empowerment
Job rotation in the store for the sales team
Consists of 6 persons
Team leader changes every two months
Rewarding the employees
If succeed in your individual goals > bonuses
Work hard and collect bonus points
At the end of the year bonus points are counted together and paid in money
To strengthen the relationships
Done 4 times a year
E.g. Dinner, bowling, sports..
Keeping the employees updated so that they can perform their best
Why employee's motivation is important to us?
Gain better results
Loyal employees = loyal customers
Satisfied employees = Good organizational spirit
Become trustworthy company