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Biology EOC Review 1-Cells

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Clarissa Caro

on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of Biology EOC Review 1-Cells

Tackling the Biology EOC Goal: Passing the Biology EOC Cells Cells Communication Cellular Energy & Cell Cycle Striving for success without hard work is like trying to harvest where you haven't planted.
-David Bly Cell Transport Diffusion Enzymes Catalysts in living things
Specific to a particular substrate
Affected by temperature and pH Organic Compounds
Simple, no membrane bound organelles
Bacteria only
One circular chromosome
Includes: chromosome, ribosomes, and plasma membrane Spring 2013 Diffusion of water (also passive transport) Osmosis Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY NEEDED) across a membrane
Solutes move from high concentration to low concentration Chemical Signals (hormones) can be sent from one cell to another
Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane receive the signal Cell to Cell Communication Storage of excess materials
Plant cells usually contain one large vacuole Vacuole “Control Center”
Contains chromosomes Nucleus fructose Monomer- monosaccharide
Function- energy source and structure
Building carbohydrates
Disaccharides-two sugars
Ex. sucrose
Polysaccharides-many sugars
Ex. Cellulose, glycogen, starch
Tests: glucose-Benedicts
starch- Iodine Carbohydrates cells develop to perform different functions
Regulated by genes Cell Specialization Plant cells ONLY
Surrounds cell and provides support and protection.
Made of cellulose Cell Wall Surrounds the cell
Regulates what enters/leaves the cell
Helps maintain homeostasis
Made of phospholipids with embedded proteins Plasma Membrane
aka: Cell Membrane Proteins are synthesized
Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes Ribosomes Site of photosynthesis
Plant cells ONLY
Contains the pigment chlorophyll Chloroplast “Powerhouse” of the cell
Produces energy in the form of ATP
Site of Aerobic respiration Mitochondria
Singular: Mitochondrion Monomer- amino acids
Function- building and repairing cells, communication, transport, and regulation
Tests- Biurets
Examples: enzymes,
hemoglobin Proteins Monomer- nucleotide
Function- carry genetic information
Ex. DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids Lipid vs. water Made of fatty acids and glycerol
Function- energy storage and insulation
Tests: brown paper test
Examples: fats and steroids Lipids All living things are made of organic compounds.
Contain the element Carbon
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids Organic Compounds Cell



Organ System

Individual organism Animal Cell wall
Large central vacuole Plant Eukaryotes Membrane bound organelles
Plants and Animals
True nucleus containing chromosomes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes No cell wall
Small vacuoles Particles moving against the concentration gradient which REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP)
Low concentration to high concentration Active Transport Steps of Lytic Cycle and Lysogenic cycle Cell division
Produces two identical diploid daughter cells
Occurs in body cells to grow and repair Mitosis Water and Carbon Dioxide used to produce Glucose and Oxygen


Occurs in the chloroplast Photosynthesis RNA virus
Infects the respiratory tract of humans as well as other animals
The death of the infected cells and a person’s immune system response causes inflammation which leads to sore throat and mucus secretions
Infection causes mild to severe illness, including fever, cough, headache, and a general feeling of tiredness
Infection lasts for 1 to 2 weeks and can cause a more severe illness Influenza Used to release energy (ATP) for cellular use


Occurs in the mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Energy storing molecule

Can be used for quick energy by the cell

Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds ATP Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV )
Usually attacks helper T cells.
As the helper T cells die, the immune system gradually weakens,
The patient becomes susceptible to other diseases. AIDS Not considered living things
Pathogens that can mutate to resist vaccines
Ex. HIV, Influenza, Smallpox Viruses Cell Organization How a Virus Attacks Does not require Oxygen
also used to release energy, but not as efficient as aerobic respiration (less ATP)

Products include CO2 and lactic acid or alcohol

Two Types: Alcoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid Fermentation Anaerobic Respiration
aka Fermentation G1
Telophase Cell Cycle Error in cell growth with causes uncontrolled cell growth
Has environment and genetic variables Cancer Osmosis in Action Hypertonic condition: water moving out of the cell is greater than the rate of water moving into the cell. The net is that the cell loses water.

Hypotonic condition: water moving out of the cell is less than the rate of water moving into the cell. The net is that the cell gains water.

Isotonic condition: water moving out of the cell equals to the rate of water moving into the cell. The net is that the cell does not gain or lose water.
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