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Transcript of Bridges
The first bridges were made by nature — a log fallen across a stream or stones in the river.
The first bridges made by humans were probably spans of cut wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support and crossbeam arrangement.
The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans. They built arch bridges and aqueducts. An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain, between 104 and 106 CE The Arkadiko Bridge in Greece, dates back to the Greek Bronze Age (13th century BC), and was designed to accommodate chariots. It is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use. EARLY BRIDGES Pont du Gard in France is part of an aqueduct built by the ancient Romans. It is still standing more than 2000 years after it was built.
The oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605. This bridge is historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge.
Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes Mountains of South America, just prior to European colonizationin the 1500s. The first welded road bridge in the world was built in 1929 across the river Słudwia Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland.
Richmond Bridge built from sandstone, crosses the Coal River 25 kilometers from Hobart. It is Australia’s oldest bridge which was built in 1825. All about Bridges Types of Bridges Arch bridges are one of the earliest types of bridges. They are arch-shaped and have abutments at each end. Most modern day arch bridges are built from steel or concrete. Arch bridges are very strong. The weight does not push straight down on the bridge but it is carried outward along the curve of the arch to the supports at each end which are known as abutments. The abutments carry the load and keep the arch and the roadway above it in place. Beam or girder bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by piers. They are simplest type of bridge and are a good design to use to span short distances. Support columns are used along the bridge if the beam bridge is long. A beam bridge is usually built with concrete and steel. The earliest were simple logs that sat across streams and similar simple structures. Cantilever bridges have two arms that stick out from each pier. One arm is anchored down on the shore, the other projects toward the center. A section is built in the center that rests on the ends of the two arms. The Cantilever bridge can be used to span great distances. Truss bridges are composed of connected elements. They have triangular shape patterns known as trusses which make the bridge stronger. The trusses are commonly made from straight, steel bars. They are rigid. They prevent movement when they are pushed.They have a solid deck and a lattice of pin-jointed or gusset-joined girders for the sides. Early truss bridges were made of wood, and later of wood with iron tensile rods, but modern truss bridges are made completely of metals such as wrought iron and steel or sometimes of reinforced concrete. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. In modern bridges, the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams. Suspension bridges are longer than the other types of bridges and are suspended from cables. The cables rest on the top of the high towers and are secured at each end by anchorages. These towers allow the main cables to be draped over long distances. Most of the weight of the bridge is carried by the cables to the anchorage. Inside the anchorages, the cables are spread over a large area to distribute the load evenly and to prevent the cables from breaking free. Most suspension bridges have a truss design under the roadway to resist bending and twisting. Cable-Stayed, much like suspension bridges, are held up by cables. Less cable is required and the towers holding the cables are proportionately shorter. The first known cable-stayed bridge was designed in 1784 by C.T. Loescher. Double-decked bridges have two levels. They are either used for traffic, rail or pedestrians. Some bridges are not fixed crossings, but can move out of the way of boats or other kinds of traffic. Movable bridges are needed over rivers, canals or harbor entrances. These bridges are low but they must allow the passing of boats. Examples are Swing bridges; Vertical lift bridges; Drawbridges and Bascule bridges. A bascule is a moveable bridge which has one or two sections which are raised when a boat wants to go through. These are generally electrically powered. Other types
Covered bridges were built
to cross streams of moderate distance. The roof protected the wooden planking of the road from rain and snow.
A Pontoon bridge or floating bridge is a bridge that floats on water, supported by barge-or-boat-like pontoons to support the bridge deck and its dynamic loads. Ponton bridges are usually temporary structures which can be taken away after it has been used. The original London Bridge was a pontoon bridge.
A Bailey bridge is a portable pre-fabricated truss bridge. It requires no special tools or heavy equipment for construction, the bridge elements are small enough to be carried in trucks. They are extensively used in civil engineering construction projects to provide temporary access across canals, rivers, railway lines etc.
The Wanxian Bridge, built over the Yangtze River in China is the longest concrete arch bridge in the world at 864.12 metres in length. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the longest steel arch bridge in Australia. The arch has a span of 503 meters. At 48.8 m wide, it is the world’s widest bridge. The world's longest beam bridge is Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in southern Louisiana in the United States, at 38.35 kilometers, with an individual span of 17 meters. Howrah Bridge, in West Bengal, India. is the world's busiest cantilever bridge in the world. Its daily traffic is approximately 80,000 vehicles and, possibly, more than 1,000,000 pedestrians.
The largest cantilever bridge is the 549-metre Quebec Bridge in Canada, it is also the world's longest truss bridge.
Mooney Mooney Bridge that spans Mooney Mooney Creek in Brisbane Water National Park on the Central Coast of New South Wales as part of the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway is a twin cantilever bridge. It is the highest road bridge in Australia as measured from the road bed to the water 75 meters below.
Sea Cliff Bridge, Coalcliff, is a balanced cantilever bridge located in the northern Illawarra region of New South Wales The Story Bridge in Brisbane is a steel truss bridge. It is Australia’s largest steel bridge designed and built entirely by Australian made materials The longest suspension bridge in the world is the 1,909 meters Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Kobe, Japan. The Golden Gate Bridge spans Golden Gate, San Francisco Bay - one of the most admired and famous bridges in the world. Many people said a bridge could not be built there because of the strong currents and the depth of the water. It is also a very windy and foggy site. Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong is the longest road-rail suspension bridge in the world. Its 41 meters wide bridge deck carries six lanes of automobile traffic, with three lanes in each direction. The lower level contains two rail tracks.
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul is a gravity-anchored suspension bridge with steel pylons and inclined hangers.
Hampden Bridge, Kangaroo Valley, is the only surviving suspension bridge from the colonial period in New South Wales. The longest cable-stayed bridge is the Sutong Bridge over the Yangtze River in China. With a span of 1,088 meters, its two side spans are 300 meters each and there are also four small cable spans. ANZAC Bridge, Sydney, links Darling Harbour with Sydney’s western roads across Johnstons Bay. It is Australia’s longest cable-stayed bridge. The Washington Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis, USA, uses one level for street traffic and its upper level for pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Tower Bridge over the River Thames in London is a double leaf bascule bridge. . Vizcaya Bridge in Spain is the oldest transporter bridge in the world built in 1893. Pyrmont Bridge is a swing bridge over Cockle Bay in Darling Harbour References:
Stafford, Mark (2008). Engineering feats. Blake Education; Glebe, NSW.
Griffiths, Rachel (2009). Why do bridges arch? Cambridge University Press ; Port Melbourne.
Oxlade, Chris (2000). BRIDGES. Heinemann Library ; Oxford.
Sheppard, Barrie (2007). Spans and supports: Australia’s bridges. Echidna Books ; Carlton, Vic.
Bridges and Tunnels. Macdonald Educational; London. (1972)
Bridge from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge
Bridges : different types of bridges http://www32.brinkster.com/redjeep/bridges/types.htm#2
Arkadiko Bridge Heinz Schmitz
Alcántara Bridge Dantla from de.wikipedia
Pont du Gard photographed by Arturo
Rope bridge Rutahsa Adventures
Sudwia Maurzyce Marek & Ewa Wojciechowscy
Wanxian Bridge photographed by Susan
Sydney Harbour Bridge photographed by Noodle Snack
Richmond Bridge photographed by Noodle Snack
Story Bridge photographed by Cryon
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge photographed by Kim Rötzel
The Golden Gate Bridge photographed by Rich Niewiroski Jr.
Tsing Ma Bridge photographed by E. Hoba
ANZAC Bridge photographed by Sardaka
George Washington Bridge photographed by Dave Frieder
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge photographed by Radomil
Hampden Bridge photographed by Siavash Ad
Pyrmont Bridge photographed by Greg O'Beirne
Sea Cliff Bridge photographed by TimK13