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The Impact of Mentoring Program on Career Guidance
Transcript of The Impact of Mentoring Program on Career Guidance
2. Literature Review
Discussion on Findings
Recommendation for the program
Chong Nga Sze
The Impact of Mentoring Program
on Career Guidance
Detail mentoring outcomes in light of career guidance
help students in career establishment by providing career guidance
Majority satisfied with the program and having good relationship with their mentor
Findings are based on relatively small numbers of mentees>> not comprehensive enough & limit the generalizability
More investigation should carried out to examine how to increase the quality of mentoring relationship which can maximum the mentoring outcomes
Statement of Problem
Purpose of study
Career guidance is important to university students.
Focus on the positive impacts on career guidance by joining program
Evaluate the effectiveness of the mentoring program from 4 dimensions:
Career development theories
Social learning theory
Case study method
Case: HRM mentoring Program
Research participant and procedures
Feeling toward mentor
Evaluation of program design
Thank you for your attention
"is a relationship between a younger adult and an older, more experienced adult that helps the younger individual learn to
navigate in the adult world and the world of work
" --- Kram 1985
develop sense of career engagement
develop career aspiration
bring up confidence
A lot of studies support that mentoring program really brings a lot of benefits to mentees
general situation of mentoring program
conducted in foreign countries
not match with the social context of Hong Kong
focuses on one university-based mentoring program
look at the details of the mentoring program
the positive impact of career guidance
In-depth qualitative research with case study method
(1) Mentees' expectation
(2) Mentoring relationship
(3) Mentoring outcomes
(4) Program designs
Case: HKBU HRM Mentoring program
Sequence of work-related experiences and attitude that individual has over the span of his work life
--- Hall & Associates 1996; Yan, Zhu & Hall 2002
Career is one of the main components to our life
. --- Isabella 1988; Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson & MeKee 1978)
Not only related to on the job adults, but also to those students are going to work such as undergraduate student. Plan for our career!
People's life span vocational career can be divided into different stages by time sequence and development
Different career development theories with different stages :
Eg. Savickas 5 stages theory (extent Super's theory):
, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline
Support that in different period of time, people should do different things to manage their career
explore and acquire more information about vocation
develop attitude, beliefs and competencies to clarify vocational concept
narrow career choices.
Need for career guidance
career-related decisions are based on social learning
choosing a particular occupation is influenced by positive and consistent reinforcement from observing significant occupational role models and being exposed to images related to specific career --- Millward 2005
Mentor can be a role model in contributing mentee's readiness to make vocational choices
Donald E. Super : 5 stages
Levinson, Lynn Cai & Horn :3 stages
Greenhaus : 5 stages
Edgar H. Schein : 9 stages
Savickas : 5 stages
Make educational, training and occupational choices to manage their career
Help people to reflect on their ambitions, interests, qualifications and abilities
Understand the labour market
Comprehensive career guidance tries to teach people to plan and make decision about work and learning
Experienced and knowledgeable individual (mentor) providing encouragement and guidance in the forms of time, knowledge, effort and feedback in a caring way to a less-experienced individual (mentee)
Career development and training tool to facilitates the mentee's growth and advancement.
Facilitate mentee for career advancement
exposure & visibility
challenging assignment toward mentee
Increase mentee's confidence and sense of self-efficacy
Career-oriented + psychosocial functions
relatively long duration
Only career-oriented function
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
occurs naturally without the arrangement from organization
form by organization with matching process
guides them into relation
increase number of promotions
higher career satisfaction
strength of interpersonal bond, confidence, identity
professional identity formation
increase individual performance
Explore the perceptions and experiences of participants
In-depth understanding about the mentoring program and logical though of mentees
Organized by the School of Business of HKBU
60 mentors from different companies
Aims/ learning outcomes:
Build better sense of career engagement
Develop career aspiration
Develop confidence in communicating with senior professionals
Broaden perspective towards the world of work
Expand network for personal and professional development
Target participants: HRM year2 students
Evaluation form + Report
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Complete personal development plan
One-on-one semi-structure interviews were carried out via telephone or in-person meeting
10 mentees were interviewed
completed the HRM mentoring program already (joined in 2011 and finished in 2012)
Understand Mentee's expectation
understanding their relationship
evaluate mentoring outcomes
evaluate the mentoring program designs
The idea of met expectation is a predictor of relationship effectiveness and trust in mentoring relationship
--- Young & Perrewe 2000
Need to understand mentess' expectation to evaluate their satisfaction
>>the effectiveness and satisfaction of mentees
getting knowledge about HR industry and business world
"I expected the mentoring program could give me a deeper insight of HR industry. By forming a mentor-mentee relationship between a HR professional could allow me to understand how the real business environment works"
"...have a mentor who can really be my light of career or even personal liked that can gives me opinions and advices, especially career advices because I am frustrated what to do in the future when I am studying."
mentee's expectation is differ slightly from the objective of the mentoring program
"I expected that I might get an internship from my mentor's company yet I wasn't able to do so."
didn't think about the objectives and just follow the flow
have lower incentive to engage in the mentoring relationship
worse preparation for the program
>>clearer communication of program objective is needed
The level of support depends on the closeness of the interpersonal relationship between the mentor and mentee
Need to understand their relationship and the way they communicate
feeling toward mentor
high incentive to contact their mentor
all of mentees have been request for meeting during the program
although mentor are too busy for face-to-face meeting, student are initiative enough to keep contact with mentor via email
"He likes to share some news to me via email and then both of us will leave some comments and discuss about it... Although we only met for 2 times, we kept contact on email"
However, not all the students were keeping contact with mentor after they have been rejected for meeting
7 students met their mentor for 2~3 times
3 students contact their mentor via email less than 5 times
"Frequent, high quality interactions are important to the development of a close relationship."
--- Honde 1997
"I seldom see my mentor as out free times always crushed with each other and she is really busy."
formal mentors may be less motivated to be in the relationship than informal mentors since they may participate for reasons other than helping mentee grow and develop.
some may truly interested
some may feel obligated to fulfill the graduation requirement and join the program unwillingly
Most of mentors and mentees did not set a schedule for meetings, the context is so random
some students cherished the mentoring opportunities and engage in the relationship seriously.
"I am quite nervous about meeting with mentor, so I first search his background online and prepare some questions related to HRM, my future career and the market conditions...."
some students have developed a close relationship with mentor
"She (the mentor) is like my friend more than a teacher, the topics we talked about are not only related to HR or career, it is more random and personal related"
3 students said they have contact their mentor even the program finished
some students are not active in meeting and have not prepared questions
2 students even felt uncomfortable interactions and sense of interpersonal discomfort
"Every time we have a meeting, it is a bit too formal for me. It's like we are treating each other as business partners or customers rather than being mentor and mentee
formal mentoring contain a third-party matching process rather than mutual attraction
therefore less interpersonal comfort and identification between mentor and mentee
difficult for them to develop a close and trusting relationship
Majority appreciate their mentor as they think mentor is helpful, nice and they learnt a lot from the mentor
" I really appreciate my mentor because he really treated the program seriously...He told me a lot of his principles of making some novel ideas in HR works and warned me the backsides of working in this industry."
When student having good impression toward the mentor, they tend more willing to interact and develop relationship with their mentor and higher satisfaction.
90% students think they did learn something from mentor
Short essay is more appropriate for them to ponder over the program
because more freedom and space to talk about their plan
Conduct more prepatory activities
Clearer communication of the program objectives
Follow-up supports to see if any obstacles have been encountered
At least, email is needed to remind students to make appointment with their mentor , not only remind them to hand in the report.
Up-to-date knowledge about business world
up-to-date business information: condition of labour market, HR field information etc
"my mentor suggest me to create a LinkedIn account which is social networking site... help me to build a strong network where I can met a lot of professionals in different industries"
explore more companies' information in business world
eg. most student said that their mentor has introduced their company to them. (useful for those who wants to apply job in mentor's company)
Better plan for career
career-related information or advices from mentor
more realistic future picture: career path of being an HR professionals
the more the mentee explored about HR, the clearer direction for their career
"I really thank my mentor for teaching me the practical skills in workplaces, consulting me for the career planning and sharing with his experience to me"
Useful skills >> better equipped>> better preparation
Eg. Interview skills and CV writing skills
"I have asked about the MT program in my mentor's company........he said interviewers love aggressive interviewee who can control the interview flow"
Although there are some CV wirting workshops provided by school, it is more persuasive for mentor to teach me the skills for writing a CV"
mentors' opinions are important and insightful >> trust their mentor
" I am a little anxiety as i don't have strong preference about choosing my first job. My mentor told me i can get more internship in different job nature which can help me bring up an idea or narrow job preference."
Asked mentor in participate in assignment and project
eg. when the project needed to contact a company for doing interview, mentee will ask for mentor's help immediately
Only one student think that the mentoring outcomes is not obvious as all the information can find online and he thinks internship is more useful and practical
No social network effect as the program nature is different from those in corporate. >> not common to introduce their colleague to mentee or bring them into social network
Most of student satisfied with the program and grant to have the chance to meet their mentor
"I appreciate the network of this HR mentoring program -- as we have a large amount of HR professionals working in different fields. If you utilize the chance of maintaining a connection with the mentor, it would be very beneficial to your future career path.
Although most of students satisfied with the program, they still leave some comments to make the program more perfect
Guidance is not enough
Problem about the instrument
Problem about matching
5 students: no direction about what to do during the program
"No guidelines is provided and I have no idea to communicate with mentor as I don't know what to do and what should I say.
Design problem about the personal development plan
students feel confuse in filling it and they think it is too structure
eg. it is difficult to apply SMART goals
a student complained about the matching
"however, I thought the assignment of mentor could be better. If a student really would like to learn from a certain mentor, he/she should have that opportunity by showing their eagerness, rather than just mapping up the choices without asking for students' reason of choosing a certain mentor..."
solve the problem countered by students
>>increase the quality of program
objectives such as Timeline, goals (Murray 1991; Zey 1985), expected outcomes, interaction frequency (Eddy 2001; Regins 2000), general guidance
Consist the goals and expectation >>higher satisfaction
Guidelines for interaction frequency >> better plan & schedule >> increase their interaction amount (eg. minimum meeting requirement)
General guidelines>>solve anxiety of mentees
(eg. suggested schedule and topics)
Prepatory activities such as orientation and training can help mentor and mentee understand their role obligations and become comfortable with mentoring process
---Allen 2004; Eddy 2001
Better monitoring and follow-up
Better use of instrument
Personal development plan is a good idea to let mentee to think about the program
design of worksheet is too structure to limited their idea even cause their hesitation in filling it
1 student suggests that a small gathering for few mentors and mentees would be good to meet more mentors and the atmosphere of group chat is better than one on one
1 student thinks the better matching can be done by evaluate the eagerness of mentee.
Also, some students was being exchange students during Year2, it would be great if they can join the program for one more semester
Mentees' comments from different perspectives help improving the quality of program
Not professional interviewer >> training is need to ask skillful questions
Possible for different interpretation toward the same answers
Only cover the viewpoint of mentee, without the viewpoint with the organization and mentor
More comprehensive studies are worth to be conduct which should included the perspectives from mentor, mentee and organization
>> more practical and all-round analyses