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Transcript of ENGLISH
The word "essay" refers to a book entitled "Essai" or "Attempts" by its author Michel de Montaige (1533-1592) a french writer. The book contains 105 essays written in french. Later, Francis Bacon, an Englishman, borrowed the form and called his small compositions Essays.
It differs from other types of literature by its tendency to reveal the individuality of the writer in what is known as style includes sentence structure, manner of expression, and writer's personality.
- to ascertain or weigh
- an act of weighing
- to try or to attempt
- attempt or trial
GENERAL TYPES OF ESSAY
IMPERSONAL OR SERIOUS ESSAY
- Aims to give instruction or knowledge
- Chiefly defines, proves, scrutinizes, instructs, and informs
- Its mood is serious, descriptive, or argumentative but most often expository
- The style is impersonal and it often follows a logical organization
- Although it also reveals the author's indivaduality, the personality is supressed in a formal essay
Familiar or Personal Essay
- Aims to entertain and express the personal experiences and observations in human behavior
- Its mood can be humorous, witty, satirical, nostalgic, whimsical or affectionate
- It usually reveals the author's personality, sometimes deliberately, sometimes unconciously.
- The writer seems to present his intimate though as though to a friend.
- The spirit of this type of essay in close to that of a lyric poetry.
Kinds of Essay
- Attempts to define a specific term or clarify an abstract concept.
- Its purpose is to give meaning / to clarify
- Provides details how something looks, feels, tastes, smells, or sounds.
- Its purpose is to inform about certain characteristics / to describe
-makes use of incidents or events to present the ideas of its writer
-its purpose is to tell however, the story is humorous, its purpose is to entertains.
-may portray character or sketch a life instead of simply narrating it.
-its purposes are to inform and to tell a story
-describes how something is done; generally explains actions that should be performed in a series
-its purpose is to instruct
-analyzes strengths, weaknesses, and methods of someone else work
-its purposes is to evaluate and criticize
-theorizes or posses questions a variety of subjects
-its purposes are to evaluate and to find a solution to a problem.
-resembles a sermon since it is a serious, has the tone of the teacher explaining or trying to persuade or explaining and concentrate on giving valuable lessons on life.
-describes or explains natural phenomenon and is usually exploratory and reflective
-its purposes are to inform, to describe and to explain.
-it is also called journalistic essay and appears in news papers and magazines it discusses current issues
-the purpose is to inform
attempts to persuade the reader to the writers point of view
-the writer can either be serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his/her opinion and stand
-the prupose is ti persuade
-discusses the likeness and differences of two objects
-its purposes are to inform and to evaluate
CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY
- The normal order of the English sentence is subject + verb + object or complement, but this order may change because of sentence transformation which may be made by the speaker depending upon the meaning he/she wishes to convey.
- There are four kinds of sentences according to form or use. Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative, & Exclamatory. From these, we derive the following
A) Interrogative or Question Transform
1) Simple Reversal
- This way of a question tranform is reversing the subject and the verb.
a) When the verb is some form of to be, the word order of the question transform is verb+subject+complement.
I am a Filipino
Am I a Filipino?
The carp is a large fish
Is the carp a large fish?
b) If a verb is an action word, the order is does/do/did + subject + base form + object of the verb + object
The story interests us
Does the story interest us?
c) If the verb used is a verb phrase, the order of the question transform is auxiliary verb + subject + main verb + object.
Shay was overcome by the heat
Was Shay overcome by the heat?
-any declarative sentence maybe changed into a question by adding a tag question.
a. the tag-question is form by repeating the main verb is to be.
eg. The story is strange.
The story is strange, isn't it?
b.the tag-question auxiliary verbs does/do/did if an action word is used.
eg. the story surprises us
the story surprises us, doesn't it?
c. the tag question request the auxiliary verb if the verb used is a verb phrase.
eg. you can create a similar story
you can create a similar story, can't you?
B) the Imperative Transform
The imperative sentence is used to express a command or a request.
Declarative: she buys the book
Imperative: buy the book
C) Exclamatory Transform
A sentence that shows a strong feeling or emotions it is followed by an exclamation point (!).The order is what or how+ object object or complement+ subject +verb
a) Uses of What
- For noun complement
She is a lovely woman
What a lovely woman is she!
- For transitive verb
Ana had a strange feeling
What a strange feeling Ana had!
b) Uses of How
- For object complement
She is lovely
How lovely is she!
- For intransitive verb
Amadeo works fast.
How fast Amadeo works!
The Prepositional Transform
- An indirect object tells to whom/ for whom or to what/ for what the action was given. An object of the preposition always comes after a preposition. The prepositional always comes after a preposition. The prepositional transform occurs only with a sentence containing an indirect object. This is done by making the indirect object the object of the preposition:
China gave the world great men
China gave great men to the world.
1.Statement Pattern with Inverting Adverb
-some negative adverbs acts as inversion transform. The most common negative ad verbs which perform this function are never, hardly, seldom, not, always, not once, not often, scarcely, and rarely. A negative adverb is placed before or after the verb. When there adverbs occur in initial position, the normal subject + verb pattern becomes the verb + subject pattern
a) Linking verb pattern: adverb + verb + subject
A chinese boy is never disrespectful towards his parents.
Never a chinese boy is disrespectful towards his parents.
b) Action word pattern: Adverb + subject + verb
We seldom see each other
Seldom we see each other
c) Verb phrase
adverb + first auxiliary verb + subject + verb phrase
he derived transform or passive voice
a voice is another property of verb the voice of a verb indicates whether the subject is the doer or the receiver of the action. a verb has two voices :
active and passive
- a verb is in the passive voice when the subject is the doer of the action while a verb is in the passive voice if the subject is the receiver of the action.
ex. active- most children liked oatmeal
passive- oatmeal is liked by most children.
the derived transform is done by changing the active voice into passive voice.
-the papers are corrected by the teachers yesterday.
-teachers corrected the papers yesterday.
-the papers were corrected by teachers yesterday.
-the papers will
be corrected by
-the teachers has corrected the papers.
-the papers have been corrected by the teachers.
-the teachers had corrected the papers when we came.
-the papers had been corrected by the teachers when we came.
-the teachers will have corrected the papers by the time we arrive.
-the papers will have been corrected by the teacher by the time we arrive.
-the teachers is correcting the papers now.
-the papers are being corrected by teacher now.
-the teacher was correcting the papers the whole day.
-the papers were corrected by the teacher new.
- is a piece of prose writing which expresses the thoughts , attitude, and opinions of a writer on various subjects and has a definite purpose.
-explains how or why some events happened, and what resulted from this events
-this is study of the relationship of to or more events or experiences
- its purposes are to inform, explains, and evaluate