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Transcript of Mesopotamia
The world's 1st Civilization emerge in the river valley of Tigris and Euphrates about 6,000 years ago.
The small Sumerian Villages grew into twelve city-state.
The small Sumerian Villages grew into twelve city-states.
The Sumerians made Impressive achievements: Built houses, temples, and palaces of sun-dried bricks
Writing made possible for the first time to keep records of religious beliefs, laws and business transactions by means of their system of writing called Cuneiform.
Religion is the heart of Mesopotamian Civilization. They believe that magical practices and religious ceremonies could change nature and they facilitate by Patesi, a ruler of some of the Sumerian city-states who combined the religious and the secular chieftaincies.
Religion was the source of Mesopotamian art, literature, rules of right and wrong and political organizations.
White Temple on its ziggurat (raised up or high, imitation mountains), Uruk, Mesopotamia, Unique to Mesopotamia, c3500-3000 BCE
Gudea with the Temple Plan, from Lagash,
Neo Sumerian Culture,
c. 2100-1800/1900 BCE
Head of Gudea, from Lagash, Neo Sumerian Culture, c. 2100-1800/1900 BCE
Victory stele (an upright stone marker) of Naram-Sin,
from Susa, c. 2254-2218 BCE
Head of an Akkadian ruler, possibly Sargon I, Nineveh, Akkad
c. 2300-2100 BCE
Lyre Sound box and inlay, from the tomb of Queen Puabi,
Cylinder Seal and Impression,
Uruk, c. 3500-3000 BCE
White Temple on its ziggurat (raised up or high, imitation mountains),
Uruk, Mesopotamia, Unique to Mesopotamia, c3500-3000 BCE
c. 3500-3000 BCE
Presentations of offering to Inanna, from Uruk
Sumerian, c. 3200-3000 BCE
War Side and Peace Side of the Standard of Ur,
Royal cemetery, c. 2600 BCE, Sumerian
The Sumerians first invented the wheel. They connected it to vehicles called chariots. It got them to places they wanted to go quickly. It was one of the biggest achievements in history.
The Law Code of Hammurabi, Susa, capital of Elam, now Iran, c. 1792-1750 BCE, Babylonian
Statues from Abu Temple at Tell Asmar, Early Sumer dynastic Period c2700-2500 BCE
The State and Urban Revolution:
In the city-state (or state), kin and tribal loyalties are, by definition, subordinated and replaced by political ties….
What makes a city-state different from an agricultural town is the synergy created by its people interacting with each other on the basis of political relationships rather than traditional blood ties.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CUNEIFORM: The Sumerian writing system during the early periods was constantly in flux.
The original direction of writing was from top to bottom, but for reasons unknown, it changed to left-to-right very early on (perhaps around 3000 BCE).
This also affected the orientation of the signs by rotating all of them 90° counterclockwise. Another change in this early system involved the "style" of the signs.
The early signs were more "linear" in that the strokes making up the signs were lines and curves.
But starting after 3000 BC, these strokes started to evolve into wedges, thus changing the visual style of the signs from linear to "cuneiform".
These carved stone figures, their eyes wide with awe and their hands clasped in reverence, were placed in Mesopotamian temples ..
There were many gods. For example,
was the father of the gods and the god of the sky
was the god of the air
was the sun god and the lord of truth and justice
was the moon god
was the goddess of love and war
was the goddess of earth
was the god of fresh water as well as the lord of wisdom and magic;
was the god of thunder.
Reign of Hammurabi of Babylon
The Dynasty of Ur,
Sumer, 3200-2350 B.C.
The Amorite invasions,
Ruins of Kish
Grand Palace of Kish
Ziggurat of Kish
Kish was one of the twelve city-states of ancient Sumer civilization.
In this city lived the famous and magnificent Akkadian King Sargon the Great, founder of the first Empire in history.
One of the earlier kings in Kish was Etana who "stabilized all the lands" securing the 1st dynasty of Kish and establishing rule over ancient Sumer and some of its neighbors.
The title King of Kish became synonymous with Kind of Sumer.
For thousands of years, Nippur was the religious center of Mesopotamia.
According to Sumerian religion, it was at Nippur where Enlil, the supreme god of the Sumerian pantheon, created mankind.
Although never a capital city, Nippur had great political importance because royal rule over Mesopotamia was not considered legitimate without recognition in its temples.
Thus, Nippur was the focus of pilgrimage and building programs by dozens of kings including Hammurabi of Babylon and Ashurbanipal of Assyria.
The Standard of Ur comes to us from a royal tombs found in the ancient Sumerian city of Ur. In the Standard of Ur, a chariot is shown in the top register on the left.
The Standard presents, on the top 2 registers, the aftermath of another successful victory for Sumer, with a procession of troops presenting POWs to the victorious king at the center of the top.
Sargon of Akkad unifies Mesopotamia: world’s first empire, ca. 2240 B.C.
Iron working - They were first to make wide use of iron. They invented a furnace which made iron production easier. They refused to trade their iron tools & weapons and tried to keep the process a secret
Religion - Polytheism
The Hittites were invaded and assimilated into the culture of the invaders.
Hittites and the use of iron
They conquered what is now Turkey and clashed with Egypt. In 1296 BC they signed the first known peace treaty with Egypt.
They built great fortifications using natural defenses. Their art adorned their buildings.
Hittite Law - Their laws also controlled their economy by setting prices and wages. Laws were less severe and more humane. Capital punishment (death) was reserved for major crimes. Premeditation was taken into account and fines were set.
The ancient Hittite city of Hattusha, in Turkey.
Hittite Territory at the height of their Empire.
Hittite clay tablet
The Hittite’s Three Man Chariot. Two archers and a driver in each chariot made this a fearsome offensive weapon.
1.Nomadic peoples who lived in the areas surrounding the
great civilizations of the ancient Middle East.
2.They domesticated animals for food and clothing and
moved along regular migratory routes.
3.They did trade with the settled peoples of the area and
helped to establish long-distance trade networks.
This also allowed for the spreading of culture and technology (Cultural Diffusion)
4.Probably came out of the steppe region north of the Black Sea.
Their language influenced Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and Germanic languages.
5.Some of these people settled in Anatolia around 1750 B.C. and helped to establish the Hittite Kingdom.
Hittite Spearman Hittite God
The Hittite capital city of Hattusha
The Hittites created their empire between 1600-1200 B.C. (BCE)
*They were the first people to learn to smelt (separate metal from ore) iron.
There were eventually weakened and defeated by the Sea Peoples.
The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory
The end of the Hittite kingdom allowed for the rise of other people in this region
a. determine the connection of civilization
b. enumerate the different civilization in Mesopotamia
c. appreciate the different surviving skills of the people in Mesopotamia
d. value the different contributions of each civilization in Mesopotamia
e. contrast the ancient tablet to modern tablet
f. be able to build alike structure of Ziggurat using news paper
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