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Westward Expansion

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Mr. Dickman

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of Westward Expansion

Chapter 13 - Westward Expansion
Oregon Country
Geography of Oregon
Fertile Soil
Dense Forests
Claims to Oregon
Early 1800s
Rightfully the land
belonged to
Native American
1818 U.S. and Britain Agreement
The two would occupy jointly with equal rights.
Fur Trapping and Trading
Mountain Men
Fur Trappers who live in the western mountains in the early 1800s
What qualities would help you survive in the wilderness?
Trappers and Traders
led dangerous lives. Traded furs for profit.

would sell furs and make even more profit.

A place where trappers and traders would meet to carry out business.
a religious settlement
Missionary: person who tries to spread certain religious beliefs
Reports of Oregon
Fertile soil
Open land
The Oregon Trail
Was it easy?
Storms / Rain
Rough Crossings / Lost Belongings
The Oregon Trail
Despite the many hardships, more than 50,000 people reached Oregon between 1840 and 1860.
Mountain Men
led the way.
United States
based claims on
expeditions to area
. (Lewis and Clark)
claimed because of the explorer
Sir Francis Drake visit

in 1579.
Texas Wins Independence
Early 1800s American farmers attracted to Texas.
Varied geography
Warm Climate
Fertile Soil
1821 Spain gave Moses Austin a land grant.
Stephen Austin led settlers
Each settler received a large land grant
Americans in Mexican Texas
By 1830
20,000 Americans
settled in Texas
Catholic Missions
Mexican Citizenship
Must worship in Roman Catholic Church
Must have
Gonzales - Texans clash with Mexican Troops
Santa Anna leads troops north to stamp out rebellion.
Texans take San Antonio
Declare independence March 2, 1836
Republic of Texas
The Alamo
The few Texans who remain retire to the
Santa Anna arrives in San Antonio
American settlers felt no loyalty to Mexico. They spoke very little Spanish and most were Protestants.
Mexico feared Americans would take Texas
The U.S. already tried twice to buy Texas
Mexico decides to force Texans to obey the laws.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna New Mexican Leader
Force the Mexican Troops to withdraw.
Goliad Massacre
Houston's army flooded with volunteers.
Men from United States help out!
Final steps to Texas Independence
Fuels Texan Resolve
Texans killed after surrender.
Santa Anna encampment
Battle of San Jacinto
Remember the
I'll sign!
The Lone Star Republic
California and the Southwest
William Becknell

American to head to Santa Fe.

Mexicans are eager to by their goods.

Others followed - soon his trail is known as the
Santa Fe Trail
California Geography
Mission Life for Native Americans
Harsh Life
Converted to Christianity
Population Decrease
Expansion: A Right and a Duty
Manifest Destiny
clear or obvious
something that is sure to happen
What do you notice?
What is the artist telling us?
Election of 1844
James K. Polk

Henry Clay
Speaker of the House
Corrupt Bargain

Opposed Expansion
Opposed Texas Annexation

Favored Expansion
Demanded Oregon and Texas be added to the Union
Little-known candidate
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!
The BEST Government
Superior to Native Americans
War With Mexico
Polk avoids war.
Dividing Oregon
54 40
Annexing Texas
Sam Houston signs a treaty for annexation of Texas.
The U.S. Senate refuses to ratify the treaty.
Sam Houston tricks the U.S.
Fine. I'll make Britain our ally.
We'll agree. Just keep Britain out.
Why would Congress agree?
We don't accept Texas Independence!
This might start a rebellion.
We're afraid!
Nueces River
Rio Grande River
Dispute Over Border
General Taylor crosses into disputed territory.
Mexican Troops cross the Rio Grande.
Fighting breaks out.
General Taylor crosses the Rio Grande and wins several victories.
In Feb. 1847 Taylor meets Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista.
Mexican troops outnumber the Americans
Americans better armed and led.
Battle of Buena Vista
Mecian Troops = 15,000 American = 4800
General Winfield Scott
Mexico City
General Stephen Kearny
Captures Santa Fe
Marches on to San Diego
John C. Fremont supports the rebellion, command rebels, drives Mexican troops out of northern California.
California rebels. Declares independence
Final Battle
General Scott reaches the outskirts of Mexico City
Mexicans make a heroic stand but loose.
Scott wins
The Bear Flag Revolt
Mexico Signs Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Cedes all of California and New Mexico.
The Mexican Cession
Gadsden Purchase
1853-US pays Mexico $10 Million for STRIP LAND in parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
Sutter's Mill
James Marshall
inspects a ditch
his crew was digging and
finds something shining
at the bottom of the ditch.
I am certain this gold!
How would
you FEEL
if you

large sum

of money
in charge of construction of the mill
Shutter's Mill Location
Word spreads to San Francisco
Word of Gold spreads across the U.S.
Hey there's gold in them there hills!
I heard there's gold in California!
Word of Gold spread to the rest of the world
South America
More than 80,000 people journey to California for

Panning for Gold
Tools of the Forty-niner
Mining Camps were diverse with people.
kept order.
California joins the Union 1850.
Declared an independent republic in 1846 after the Bear Flag Revolt.
self-appointed law enforcers
No Trial for you!
Joseph Smith
Started in N.Y.
Moved to Illinois
Neighbors anrgy over the Mormon's Religious Beliefs.
Banks of the Mississippi
Forced to move again!
Joseph Smith is killed by an angry mob.
Brigham Young
New Leader
Brigham Young faces challenge of moving 15,000 men, women, and children
Learns about
a valley between the Rockies and the
Great Salt Lake
in Utah.
Led an advance party into the valley. Soon more and more Mormons follow.
Brigham Young designs irrigation for farming.
Mormons give Native Americans the boot.
Neighbors clash again with the Mormons!
In 1850 Young is recognized as the Governor of the Utah Territory. The Union recognizes Utah as a state in 1896.
The Great Salt Lake Valley provides natural protection.
The Rockies
The Great Salt Lake
The Challenge
Hey Buddy,
Go to the Great Salt Lake in Utah!
Young drew up plans for a new city.
Salt Lake City
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
Built one of the first western missions.
Attracted many settlers.
Settlers brought disease which killed many Indian children.
Whitman were killed by the Cayuse Indians.
Banned slavery in Texas - angered Americans
Tejanos - Mexicans who lived in Texas
Mexican troops stage a 12 day siege.
Three weeks after the Alamo
Mexico Forbids American From Moving In
Full transcript