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Transcript of Cold War
February 21, 1947: Britain notifies US – can no longer provide financial aid to Greece and Turkey.
March 12, 1947:
Truman addresses Congress
Asks for $400 million in military & economic aid
Only for Greece & Turkey
The “Doctrine” guides US diplomacy for next 40 years.
1961: Soviets build “The Wall” to halt East Germans fleeing to West Berlin.
July 20, 1969: Neil Armstrong first person to walk on the moon.
Americans arrive on the moon first and win the Space Race.
October 22: Kennedy addresses the nation at 7 pm.
Told of the missile launching construction
US blockade response
US Position: a missile launched from Cuba would be viewed as an attack from the Soviets.
Demands that Soviets remove weapons from Cuba.
Created by Secretary of State George Marshall.
A reconstruction plan – used to rebuild Europe after the war.
Money was used to buy staples (food, fuel, …) at first, then turned to structural parts.
Aid is offered to all European countries
including the Soviets.
Soviets reject deal and require that countries under their influence reject the plan too.
Unofficial Goal: Contain the spread of Soviet influence. This policy is containment.
June 1948: Soviets close off road and rail access to Berlin.
Allies can’t get supplies into their sectors.
Bay of Pigs
Arms Race & Space Race
Begins in 1952 when US develops H-bomb and continues through the 1980s.
"No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space. And none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish."
-- John F. Kennedy on sending a man to the moon (1961)
Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro agrees – fears another invasion after Bay of Pigs fiasco.
Summer 1962: Soviets place intermediate-range missiles on Cuba.
October 15, 1962: US reconnaissance flights photograph construction of Soviet missile sites.
Mr. President, there is now hard photographic evidence that the Russians have offensive missiles in Cuba."
-McGeorge Bundy, National Security Advisor
Decision: Naval blockade of Cuba (no more deliveries of weapons)
"Nuclear catastrophe was hanging by a thread ... and we weren't counting days or hours, but minutes."
-Soviet General and Army Chief of Operations, Anatoly Gribkov
"This government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere. . . . I have directed that the following initial steps be taken:
First, to halt this offensive build up, a strict quarantine of all military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated.
Second, I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance and its military build up.
Third, it shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response on the Soviet Union."
-- From President Kennedy's address to the nation
“I must say frankly that the measures indicated in your statement constitute a serious threat to peace and to the security of nations... We reaffirm that the armaments which are in Cuba, regardless of the classification to which they may belong, are intended solely for defensive purposes... I hope the United States Government will display wisdom and renounce the actions pursued by you, which may lead to catastrophic consequences for world peace.”
“You, Mr. President, are not declaring a quarantine, but rather are advancing an ultimatum and threatening that if we do not give in to your demands you will use force.... No Mr. President, I cannot agree to this, and I think that in your own heart you recognize that I am correct. I am convinced that in my place you would act the same way. Therefore the Soviet Government cannot instruct the captains of Soviet vessels bound for Cuba to observe the orders of the American naval forces blockading that Island.... Naturally we will not simply be bystanders with regard to piratical acts by American ships on the high seas. We will then be forced on our part to take the measures we consider necessary and adequate to protect our rights. We have everything necessary to do so.”
“You and I should not now pull on the ends of the rope in which you have tied a knot of war, because the harder you and I pull, the tighter the knot will become. And a time may come when this knot is tied so tight that the person who tied it is no longer capable of untying it, and then the knot will have to be cut. What that would mean I need not explain to you, because you yourself understand perfectly what dreaded forces our two countries possess. I propose we, for our part, will declare that our ships bound for Cuba are not carrying any armaments. You will declare that the United States will not invade Cuba with its troops and will not support any other forces which might intend to invade Cuba. Then the necessity of the presence of our military specialists in Cuba will disappear.”
– Khrushchev's personal appeal to Kennedy 10/26
“You are disturbed over Cuba. You say that this disturbs you because it is ninety miles by sea from the coast of the United States of America. But...you have placed destructive missile weapons, which you call offensive, in Turkey, literally next to us... I therefore make this proposal: We are willing to remove from Cuba the means which you regard as offensive...Your representatives will make a declaration to the effect that the United States...will remove its analogous means from Turkey...And after that, persons entrusted by the United Nations Security Council could inspect on the spot the fulfillment of the pledges made...”
“As I read your letter, the key elements of your proposals--which seem generally acceptable as I understand them--are as follows:
You would agree to remove these weapon systems from Cuba under appropriate United Nations observation and supervision; and undertake, with suitable safe-guards, to halt the further introduction of such weapon systems into Cuba.
We, on our part, would agree--upon the establishment of adequate arrangements through the United Nations, to ensure the carrying out and continuation of these commitments (a) to remove promptly the quarantine measures now in effect and (b) to give assurances against the invasion of Cuba.”
“Esteemed Mr. President: I have received your message of October 27, 1962. I express my satisfaction and gratitude for the sense of proportion and understanding of the responsibility borne by you at present for the preservation of peace throughout the world...
In order to complete with greater speed the liquidation of the conflict... the Soviet Government... in addition to previously issued instructions on the cessation of further work at building sites for the weapons, has issued a new order on the dismantling of the weapons which you describe as "offensive," and their crating.”
The idea that in the event of a nuclear attack the defender could launch nuclear weapons at the attacker.
Result: Destruction of the attacker and defender.
Best Example: Cuban Missile Crisis
War is over . . . First crisis develops
Truman never cared for Stalin or Communism
Do we still abide by this policy today?
"It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
– -- Harry Truman
First stated by Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson
If Greece and/or Turkey fall to Communism, Communism would likely spread.
US Goal: HALT Communism
Countries that received money from the US under the Marshall Plan
Bar levels represent the amount of money received.
After the war, Germany divided into four zones.
US, Britain, France, & USSR each control an area.
Berlin (German capital) is divided the same way.
Plan created to ship supplies by air
NOT expected to work . . .
In 11 months, Allies ship over 1.5 million tons (3+ billion pounds) of supplies to Berlin
Soviets humiliated . . . Blockade is lifted when it does not work.
The Airlift at work . . .
The Beginning . . .
A Return to War . . .
Korea is divided at the 38th Parallel
Following the defeat of Japan Korea was divided like Germany.
US & USSR agreed to temporarily occupy Korea until a government could be established.
Korea had been a Japanese colony for 35 years.
Elections are scheduled BUT . . . USSR (Stalin) will not cooperate.
North Korea: Communist
South Korea: Democratic
Two nations emerge . . . both which claim the entire country.
1950: The United Nations (UN) sends troops to aid South Korea and makes a rapid advance
China enters the fray . . . comes to the aid of North Korea
HUGELY Successful -- almost reaches the border of China.
With Chinese help, North Korea pushes back
January 1951: Fighting returns to the 38th
July 51 - July 53: Stalemate at the 38th
Trench Warfare RETURNS
July 27, 1953: Armistice signed
TODAY: The US is still technically at war
since a peace agreement was never signed
The border of the two Koreas is demilitarized = NO military equipment allowed.
Border is heavily regulated
While the US officially fought North Korea it was fighting the USSR by proxy.
The USSR was the "poster" for Communism so any battle against Communism was an attack against the USSR.
Berlin is divided
Soviets want total control of Berlin
US says NO
Access to West Berlin SEVERELY restricted by East
The Wall going up . . . it will be built around West Berlin.
The Wall cut off this road
The most famous crossing point between East and West Berlin
Checkpoint Charlie . . .
Life at the Wall
April 1961-Unsuccessful attempt by Cuban exiles to overthrow the Cuban government.
Exiles were CIA-trained and supported by US soldiers (unofficially)
ABSOLUTE DISASTER - invasion force was defeated in three days.
Arms Race: The intentional stockpiling of nuclear weapons by the US and the USSR.
Space Race: A competition between the US and the USSR to conquer space.
GOAL: Have more AND better weapons than the other
H-bomb test site . . . Pacific islands
Goal: To show scientific strength and military superiority
This is a public competition due to news reports on the advancements.
Heavily publicized in the new medium "television"
Increase support for science and math education in schools.
1957: Soviets launch Sputnik - first artificial satellite into space.
1958: US launches first US satellite and creates NASA
1961: Soviet cosmonaut orbits the Earth first - first man in space
1968: US launches first manned flight around the moon.
Closest the US & USSR come to nuclear war.
Soviets behind in the Arms Race.
Problem: Soviet missiles could only reach Europe
Solution: Place Soviet missiles on Cuba
October 16: Kennedy told in the morning . . .
Activates an advisory council that meets for seven days.
Estimated range of missiles placed on Cuba
What is the problem???
Advisory Council meeting . . . tensions high
Khrushchev's (Soviet Premier) response to Kennedy
White House received a second letter from Khrushchev:
Day 13 . . .
8:05pm Kennedy released his response to Khrushchev's latest proposal. It was given to the press to avoid ANY communication delays.
The deal: Soviets remove missiles from Cuba. US removes missiles from Turkey
Disaster averted . . .
Day 14: October 28th
July 1963: A treaty was signed banning nuclear testing by the US and the USSR
MAD: Mutual Assured Destruction
The dialogue . . .
Problems begin at the end of World War II
Ho Chi Minh comes to power during the Nazi collapse.
French fight to maintain control
May 1954: French defeated at Dien Bien Phu
US offers train South Vietnamese Army
January 1955: First shipment of direct US aid arrives in Saigon
July 8, 1959: First American deaths in Vietnam
April 30, 1975: Fall of Saigon
American embassy is evacuated - Americans are gone.
Communists take over Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh Trail: A path that the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong (Communist sympathizers) used for troop transport and supply.
The trail begins in North Vietnam - goes into Laos and Cambodia before entering South Vietnam
American soldiers are NOT allowed to cross the border out of Vietnam
American troops KNOW the Ho Chi Minh Trail is there and what it is used for but they are not allowed to pursue the enemy
Agent Orange: a cancer-causing defoliant used in the Vietnamese jungle.
America Remembers . . . The Vietnam Memorial -
Listing of all 58,151 American combat deaths in order
War in Vietnam --
US Army reactivated Calvary units using helicopters