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Political Geography

Rachel Wozniak
by

Sarah Wozniak

on 3 May 2013

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Transcript of Political Geography

Compact State Prorupted State Elongated State Fragmented State Landlocked State Geometric Boundary Water Boundary Language Boundary Perforated State Mountain Boundary A compact state is a state where the distance from the center to any boundary is about equal. Uruguay is one example. This shape has a positive impact because communication in the country is easier, travel and news move quicker, and there is not as much border to defend than other states. Compact states are very effective. Prorupted states are states that are compact, but have an extension projecting from it. Thailand is an example. This shape can be good because it could provide access to a resource that the state would otherwise not have. However, it can also have negative effects like making travel, news, and communications slower. Proruptions can also separate two states. An elongated state has a long, narrow shape. Norway and Vietnam are good examples. Elongated states may have difficulties with communication and travel. Parts of the country may be isolated from the capital. However, in some elongated states, the long shape can provide more access to water and ocean resources. Fragmented states are states with several pieces of territory. The Philippines is a fragmented state. This type of state can have problems with communication and migration. Some parts of fragmented states may want their own independence. This can cause problems. There are two types of perforated states. An exclave perforated state is separated by another country. An enclave perforated state completely surrounds another state. Alaska is an exclave because Canada separates the mainland from Alaska. Perforated states can have many problems with cooperation of the separating or surrounding state, communication, and travel. A landlocked state is a state that doesn't have direct access to the sea because it is surrounded by other countries. Hungary is a good example. This is a drawback because the states around them have to cooperate to allow them to use seaports. Having access to the ocean is important for international trade. Lesotho is an enclave! A geometric boundary is a boundary that is straight. The boundaries between Libya, Egypt, Chad, and Sudan are geometric. These boundaries can lead to problems with surrounding states because they are imaginary and not always clear. Confusion is common, and there are sometimes border disputes. A water boundary is a boundary made by rivers, lakes, oceans, and other bodies of water. Water boundaries are very clear and fairly unchanging. They can offer protection against another state's attack, and may give access to the sea. Most water boundaries are in the middle of the water. Water boundaries can also cause problems. Water can change position (especially rivers), and ocean boundaries are not always clear. The Law of the Sea says that states have the rights to fish within 200 miles of the coastline. This section of border between Canada the United States is a water boundary. A language boundary is a cultural boundary that unifies people that speak the same language. Brazil's boundaries are language boundaries because the majority of Brazilians speak Portuguese, while the surrounding countries speak Spanish. These boundaries can lead to problems because not all Brazilians speak Portuguese. Some, especially around the edges, speak Spanish. There are also some border disputes about the placing of the border. A mountain boundary is a boundary made by mountains. If it is hard to pass over them, they are very effective and separate the nationalities. Mountains are also permanent. However, some mountains can lead to border disputes about where the boundary actually lies in the mountains. The northern Indian border is a mountain boundary made by the Himalayan Mountain Range. Neutral Buffer Zone A buffer zone is a neutral area designed to separate hostile nations. After World War I, Poland served as a neutral buffer zone between the Soviet Union and Germany. One problem with buffer zones is that some want independence. Sometimes they are considered separate states by some countries, but not others. Other problems include enforcing border segregation and issues with reuniting buffer zones with their original states. Frontier A frontier is a zone where no state has political control. Some parts of the ocean are frontiers that have not been claimed yet. Off the coast of China and in other areas of the oceans, there are fights about which state has the right to the fish and other marine life. The ocean frontiers can lead to disputes about borders and ownership. Supranational Divisions The European Union is a Supranational group of European states. It began as the European Coal and Steel Community trying to unite European countries and end wars. The EU's goal is to ensure peace between its countries. It unifies the states and allows for migrant workers, easy border passing, trade, and cooperation. All of the EU countries also use a common currency, the Euro, except Great Britain. COUNTRIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Electoral Districts in Texas European Union The people that set these electoral districts wanted to put the Republican party at an advantage in Texas. Texas is an example of both Excess Vote and Stacked Vote. Excess Vote is when the opposition party is shoved into a few districts. The Democrats were put into a few districts. Stacked Vote is when similar voters are linked together through oddly shaped boundaries. Key:
Blue: Democrat
Red: Republican Political Geography: By: Rachel Wozniak 2.1 The End! Shapes, Boundaries, and Divisions
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