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Social Cognitive Theory
Transcript of Social Cognitive Theory
Goals Behaviorism + Cognitive Psychology Social CognitiveTheory Theory Application Paper
Stephanie Gallego, Crystal Burnam, Maggie Seng
University Southern California
Febuary 30, 2012
Dr. Brandon Martinez Reciprocal Causation Behavioral Factors
Learning Environmental Factors
Instruction Main Concepts
Assumptions What Determines Human Behavior? What is Social Cognitive Theory? Social cognitive theory is a theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn through the observation of others in order to begin to control their own behavior (Omrod, 2010)
Social Cognitive theory is the perspective
that takes a look at how people learn.
According to this theory people learn by
observing others and during this process begin to take control of their own behaviors (Omrod, 2010 ). Modeling Self-efficacy People can learn simple by observing others. Making learned behavior by trial and error no longer necessary. Cognitive processes are an important ingredient in establishing motivation and learning. Allowing a person
to set goals based on expectations and capabilities. Learning can occur without a change in behavior. Behaviorists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behavior; in contrast social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. "Learning is an internal mental process that may or may not lead to a behavior change" (Omrod, 2010, p. 324). People and their environments mutually influence each other" (Omrod, 2010, p. 324). Reciprocal Causation Behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated as a person directs and monitors behavior to achieve goals. Self-regulation Social Cognitive Theory in Action: Video Analysis
Canoga Park, 4th Grade References Students should have high expectations of
their learning abilities. If they believe in their ability to learn then they will be more likely to succeed at accomplishing any goal or task. However, they must also take into account personal attributes and capabilities. In other words, expectations for performance should be closely aligned with
true abilities (Omrod, 2011). The standards and goals a person sets for themselves, the way they monitor and evaluate progression towards accomplishing cognitive tasks, and the way they impose consequences for successes or failures along the way is known as self-regulation (Omrod, 2011). Put simply, self-regulation is the ability to look at ourselves and our behavior and then keep tabs on it. •The more difficult the task successfully completed, the
greater the increase in Self-Efficacy
•Students that fail at something are more likely to "try and try again" if they have a strong sense of self-efficacy.
•Failure is most likely to decrease self-efficacy when a student believes that they have put forth their full effort.
•Students set higher goals for themselves when they feel a great deal of self-efficacy.
•Failure after your self-efficacy is firmly established will have less of an adverse affect on self-efficacy than early failure. Essential Conditions for Successful
Motivation Behaviors and skills that can
be learned through effective
Interpersonal Behaviors Self-efficacy- Belief that one is capable of certain behaviors or achieving certain goals. Albert Bandura argued that people could learn new information and behaviors by watching others. Known as modeling, this type of learning can be used to describe a multiplicity of behaviors. According to Omrod (2011), Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning:
1.A live model- demonstrated in his Bobo doll experiment (see video)
2.A verbal instructional model
3.A symbolic model Metacognition [Digital Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://srlet.idoroll.org/its08/index.html.
Saturday, February 3rd blog post [Digital Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mcferrinmkedm310.blogspot.com/.
Self-Regulated Learning [Digital Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cheezburger.com/Tedward/lolz/View/1562420480
Fredrick, Larry. (2012, February 10). Improve the Self [Web log post]. Retrieved from Self Improvement Blog: http://www.improve-the-self.com/self_regulation.html
Griffin, Lewis (2011, November 4). Bandura Original Footage [you tube video]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jWsxfoJEwQQ&feature=related
Omrod, E., Jeanne (2011). 7th Edition. Educational psychology: Developmental learners. Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Stolzmo. (2008, December 4). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1IHEA5gEbus [you tube video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1IHA5gEbusE
White, C. (2012, January/February). Essential Prenting. Retrieved from http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/
index.php/Self-efficacy Lesson Redesign COGNITIVE MODELING Application 1: Modeling INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIORS Self-Efficacy Application 3: Self-Regulation Application 2: Self-Efficacy COLLECTIVE SELF-EFFICACY MESSAGES FROM OTHERS SELF-REGULATED LEARNING CO-REGULATED LEARNING Cognitive modeling is "demonstrating how to think about as well as how to do a task" (Ormrod, 2011, p.330).
In this video, students learn the academic material through observation and modeling. Some students model their partners while in discussion; students also model what the teacher has shown them to do. "Children can also learn prosocial behaviors- showing compassion, sharing possessions with others, and, in general, putting others' needs and well-being before their own... (Ormrod, 2011, p. 331). Students exhibit interpersonal behaviors in this video when they devote their own attention to the thoughts of others. Students appear to respect the ideas of their partners during partner and whole group time.
Furthermore, students appear to exbhit interpersonal behaviors by looking engaged with the teacher while he is instructing. Hopefully, these actions are genuine and students are truly engaged in the lesson. Ormrod (2011) defines collective self-efficacy as, "people's beliefs about their ability to be successful when they work together on a task" (p. 339).
The lesson plan of this video as a whole demonstrates collective self-efficacy because a majority of the lesson relies upon cooperative learning in order to successfully complete the lesson.
Collective self-efficacy here allows the students to gain confidence about their knowledge through the cooperative learning. Self-efficacy is also constructed through the messages that are conveyed from person to person. In this video, there are many ways that self-efficacy is being constructed through the messages that the teacher transfers to students, students transfer to the teacher, and students transfer to other students.
For example, during partner collaboration, students provide feedback to one another, hence send messages to each other to confirm or correct what is learned. There are also several examples of messages transfering from teacher to student, but in specific his closing of the lesson models this conecpt extremely well. As the instructor discusses the overall theme of the lesson, he specifically calls out student examples that he heard throughout the lesson. This is where the he is sending messages to thos students that confirm that their learning was successful. This also helps other students whose examples were not modeled to recieve messages that their ideas were correct or incorrect. Ormrod (2011) claims that, "social cognitive theorists and cognitive psychologists alike are beginning to realize that to be truly effective learners, students must engage in some of the self-regulating behaviors . . . " (p. 347).
This video provides a great example of self-regulated learning because it demonstrates how students can construct meaning and learn concepts through self-regulated behaviors for learning. Students are minimally guided by the instructor of this lesson plan, forced to self-regulate their own learning and arrive at their own ideas for the lesson. In co-regulated learning, learning is a cooperative process. Co-regulated learning still calls for self-regulation, but it also combines others in the process to help guide this self-learning.
There is obvious co-regulated learning in the video, as the instructor guides and reinforces learning; as the students partner with each other; as the class discusses the material as a whole; and as the students model the actions and similar ideas that other students have said when they are called upon. Self-Regulation Modeling What is listening? Attitudes and Behaviors Class discussion with a volleyball Printing Press Examples Expectations At the beginning of the class, the teacher should inform the students about the learning objectives and the expectations of the day. This allows the students to understand what to do to and gear their attention to the appropriate behaviour and attitude. Briefly ask the students what do they know about “listening”.
What are the behaviours and the attitudes dfor listening?
How can we assess when you are listening? Students can pass a volleyball to another student when they do the responses. This is an addition to just calling the other students’ name. With this activity, students can be more alert and the lesson becomes more fun. The teacher can reduce the students’ feedback on the class discussion by giving some printing press examples that students can work with in the small group. Each group can be given different printing press, like newspaper, blogs, magazine, etc, and discuss about it. i.e. the materials used to print, the language is used, who read it, where to get it, etc... Students can write their thoughts on a piece of paper (one per group) to hand-in and share their thoughts to the class When students raise their hand, the teacher needs to recognize the gesture, instead of going on to the next activity. By ignoring students’ gesture, students might be discourage to participate next time. This can be a form of punishment. The teacher needs to do more praising after students sharing their thoughts. It is notable that the teacher does the praise at the end of the class, but it would be good to do it during the discussion.