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Copy of Black Identity Development
Transcript of Copy of Black Identity Development
“An unstable and decentered complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle” (Omi & Winant, 2004).
“A determining factor in how people view the world, how they are treated, and the opportunities to which they are (or are not) exposed.” (Evans & Forney, 2006)
“A collection of ethnic groups with similar cultural and physical characteristics.” (Bailey, 2011) Sector One: Infancy and Childhood in Early Black Identity Development
Contributing factors include family income, traditions, and practices; social networks such as school and church; and all historical events contribute to the early socialization experiences of black children unaware of racism or a racial identity. Sector Two: Preadolescence Development contingent on parental teachings and reinforcement outside home. Through parental socialization, three identity types emerge:
Low race salience children receive few messages from parents about race.
High-race-salience children have parents who instill the importance of their race.
Internalized racism identity develops when children see patterns of negativity toward being. Sector Four: Early Adulthood
Low/High Race Salience and Internalized Racism reemerge in this stage
Low Race Salience is characterized by the construction of diverse identities and see race unimportant
High Race Salience is characterized by the establishment of a group of peers with the same values as black culture
Internalized Racism perceive black culture in the same light as sector two, however there are moves to modify and solidify a healthy self-concept Sector One: Nigrescence Recycling
Occurs when an individual’s preexisting black self-concept is called into question.
Having no explanatory power to resolve the new questions that have emerged regarding their identity, adults reflect on identity issues subject to close scrutiny seeking resolution.
This examination enhances or transforms identity. Throughout adulthood, African Americans continuously address issues or questions of identity and through resolution may reach wisdom, or a complex and multidimensional understanding of black identity. Sector Three: Adolescence
Begin to conceptualize being Black, authenticating one’s own beliefs is key to an achieved identity
Individuals may confirm or redefine their salience in this sector
Adolescence is a chaotic time; emergent self-concept may be influenced by an individual’s peer group, community, and/or school environment. Sector Five: Adult Nigrescence [represents Cross’s (1991) original model] and involves four stages:
Preencounter involves two identity types previously mentioned: low race salience (preencounter assimilation) and internalized racism (preencounter antiblack).
Encounter occurs when black people experience an event that causes conflict in their understanding of their racial identity. An encounter is an unexpected [sometimes traumatic] situation or series of events that prompts change.
Immersion-emersion has two developmental processes.
•In Immersion individuals submerge into black culture embracing everything Black and resisting White culture; they connect to symbols such as hair style, clothing, music and language.
•In Emersion, individuals move past the shortsighted trait in the immersion phase, toward internalization, through analyzing and connecting to the emotional and consistent aspects of black identity; individuals adopt a more compassionate knowledge of Black identity.
Internalization represents dissonance resolution and has three perspectives:
•Black Nationalist: consider being black their most salient identity and commit themselves to political and social platforms to advance the black community.
•Bicultural: merge Black and dominant culture identity.
•Multicultural: focus on a wide range of identities, exploring Black identity and other worldviews [and sometimes] serve as social justice advocates. Critical Race Theory (CRT): an interdisciplinary movement and method for discussing and framing race; committed to challenging race, racism, and power based on several key tenets (Delgado & Stefanc, 2001, p. 254):
1) Racism in America often goes unnoticed
2) Voices of color are legitimate and central to challenging White privilege in racial discourse (Delgado, 1995; Solorzano, 1998)
3) The dominant culture concedes only when there is a benefit for them/interest convergence (Delgado, 1995; Ladson- Billings, 1998)
4) Notions of color blindness and neutrality need to be challenged (Bergerson, 2003; Solorzano, 1998) Sectors of Negrescence Patterns Cross and Fhagen-Smith’s Model of Black
Identity Development Video Files for Cross and Fhagen-Smith’s BID Model Internalized Racism Emerging in Childhood Internalized Racism in Adulthood Racism Heterosexism Classism Ageism Sexism Religion Oppression Ethnocentrism Stage One Naive:
Instances where children and youth demonstrate awareness of racial identity.
A mimicking or imitation of the racial identity issues could be observed in those who were in their late teens and older.
Racist incidents that children experience in school and home shape the identity experience of Black children. Stage Two Acceptance: Generally occurring in Black teens and twenties:
Represents the internalization, conscious or unconscious, of an ideology of racial dominance and subordination in all facets of private and public life.
Youth internalize many messages [rarely positive] about the meaning of being Black in the United States.
Youth attempt to gain resources—such as approval, sense of worth, goods, power, and money—by accepting and conforming to White social, cultural, and institutional standards and values.
Transforming consciousness typically causes a Black person to avoid interactions with other Blacks and to desire interactions with Whites.
Stage characterized by tension/conflict between messages in family socialization and White racist society. Tension continues in the form of how and to the degree a person will continue to identify with Black culture. Sage Four Redefinition Stage:
Black cultural perspective is strongest and most salient in one’s life.
Reacting to White people, institutions, and culture is not particularly important.
The point in development in which the Black person is concerned with defining herself or himself independent of the perceived strengths and weaknesses of dominant White people and culture.
Focuses attention and energy on interacting with other Blacks at the same stage of consciousness.
In contrast to the Resistance stage, the focus comprises the rejection of all that is White; Redefinition centers on fully embrace Black culture. Stage Three Resistance:
One begins to understand and recognize racism in its complex manifestations—at the individual and institutional, conscious and unconscious, intentional and unintentional, attitudinal, behavioral, and policy levels.
The person experiences anger, pain, hurt, and rage. The effects of racism may appear to be all-consuming. In extreme cases, some people may experience emotions for some time.
In other instances, individual Blacks may find that by fully embracing the Resistance stage they stand to lose the “benefits” from the Acceptance Stage.
For most Blacks at this stage the primary task is to stop colluding in their own victimization by not passively accepting the racism of their environment. Stage Five Internalization:
An individual begins to apply or to integrate some of the newly defined aspects of Black culture.
The transition to Internalization brings the cumulative growth and development from all previous stages forward into this final stage; the implementation of Internalization, in terms of learning and growth, dependent upon the experiences in earlier stages.
No longer feel a need to explain, defend, or protect their Black identity, although recognize the importance of nurturing the sense of self.
Blacks organizing their lives and sense of blackness around an Afrocentric perspective may find that it takes special attention to keep the focus healthy.
Some Blacks have or will adopt a multicultural perspective, which brings together worldviews from as many compatible cultural perspectives as possible.
A significant change in this last stage comes as a result of the consideration of Intersectionality Black Identity Development Stages Jackson's Black Identity
Development (BID) Model Video Files for Jackson's Black Identity Development (BID) Model Internalized Racism Emerging in Childhood Intersectionality Sexual Orientation Class Race Gender Ethnicity Religion Age Intersectionality Intersection of Manifestations of Social Oppression Racial Identity Development Models Racial and Cultural Identity Development (RCID) Model Racial and Cultural Identity Development (RCID) model (Sue and Sue, 2003)
Serves as a foundation for understanding the stages and orientations found in other identity development models. Racial and Cultural Identity Development (RCID) Model Stages Conformity:
Individuals identify with white culture, internalize negative stereotypes about themselves or their racial/ethnic group, and have no desire to learn about their cultural heritage. Dissonance:
Individuals’ experiences contradict their white worldview. They begin a journey of questioning the dominant culture, and gaining an increased interest in learning more about their own racial/ethnic group. In the introspection:
Stage, individuals grapple with finding a balance between the dominant culture and their own cultural heritage and the role of both in shaping their identity. Resistance and immersion:
Involves conscious exploration of one’s racial/ethnic identity. Individuals reject white culture and immerse themselves in learning as much as possible about themselves and their cultural group, leading to the formation of a new identity. Synergistic Articulation and Awareness:
Those who continue this intensive exploration move to in which they integrate their knowledge and experiences into a new identity where they accept themselves, appreciate contributions of other groups, and can balance their racial/ethnic identity with other aspects of their identity. Internalization Video Files for Racial and Cultural
Identity Development (RCID) Model The Modern Context of Racism in Amierca What changes have you observed in American society that emerged from the events such as 911, Hurricane Katrina, and President Obama’s election in 2008 ? What is the interplay of race on college campuses? Have you worked with students of races other than your own and felt that you needed a better understanding of their culture? How will studying racial identity theory augment your work with students? Essential Questions