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Retention in Education

Overview of research and alternatives

Brian Crawford

on 27 October 2011

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Transcript of Retention in Education

Overall retention rates have increased
by 40% over the past 20 years [NASP 2008] Currently one third of U.S. students
have been retained by the 12th grade. Olean High School
-Roughly 20% of this years incoming 12th graders have been retained in grades K-11. No statistics on social promotion. Retention Data The dilema about what to do with students that don't progress normally is endemic to education. "Position Statement on Student Grade Retention,"
the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP)

-Academic achievement of kids who are retained
is poorer than that of peers who are promoted.

-Achievement gains associated with retention
fade within two to three years after the grade repeated.

-Kids who are identified as most behind are the
ones "most likely harmed by retention."

-Retention often is associated with increased
behavior problems.

-Grade retention has a negative impact on all areas
of a child's achievement (reading, math, and language)
and socio-emotional adjustment (peer relationships,
self-esteem, problem behaviors and attendance).

-Students who are retained are more likely to drop out
of school compared to students who were never retained.
In fact, grade retention is one of the most powerful
predictors of high school dropout.

-Retained students are more likely to have poorer
educational and employment outcomes during late
adolescence and early adulthood.

-Retention is more likely to have benign or positive
impact when students are not simply held back,
but receive specific remediation to address skill and/or
behavioral problems and promote achievement and social skills.
Retention Research Studies that do show student retention working are not longitudinal. Retention Social
Promotion In general, students who
do not pass a grade the first
time around are unlikely to do much
better the second time around, all
else being equal (which it usually is). Waiting for faiure policies Social Promotion Solutions OLEAN MIDDLE SCHOOL
2010-2011 Students that are promoted without regard to their acheivement tend to fall even further behind thier classmates as the move through school, and those who do not drop out usually finish without having the knowledge and skills expected of a high school graduate. [US Dept. of Education 2005] Professional Development
-Must happen to ensure that teaching is responsive

Learning Options
-Offer more routes to the same standard
-Differentiate content, process, products and environment
-Build on student differneces

Assess to Inform Teachers
-Assessments assess your teaching
-Assessments should feed daily instruction

Interviene Early and Often
-Address reading problems early

-Teach study skills
-Teaming and consultation
-Targeted services History Educators used to view retention as a means of reducing skill varience in the classroom to better meet student needs. Social promotion evolved in the 1930s as a response to the ills of retention. One indicator of a profession is that a body
of research guides its practice. A body of
research exists on retention and social
promotion and it should guid our practice.
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