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The Mongol Empire
Transcript of The Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire
The Mongols were nomadic and lived in Central Asia. They lived in the harsh climate of the Eurasian steppe. Mongols centered their life on herding animals such as horses. They were constantly searching for greater pasture land. Mongols were known as tough warriors and occasionally raided nearby settlements. The first person to really get the Mongol empire started was Genghis Khan.
Beginning of the Mongol Empire
In 1200-1206 Genghis Khan became the clan leader for the Mongols. He was the first person to unify the Mongols. Genghis Khan began to build a powerful army and began a 21 year conquest of Eurasia. When Genghis Khan was in control of everything the conquered Russia, Korea, Central Asia, Islamic Empire, and China. In 1281, Genghis Khan and his army failed to conquer Japan. His whole empire at this time was bigger than the United States.
The Mongols Massive Empire
The Mongols were excellent horsemen. They would shoot their target while riding on a horse. If an enemy refused to to surrender, Khan would ordered the death of the entire population. His reputation spread and many towns surrendered with out a fight. (Khan was a great military organizer and strategist, but his great tactic was terror and fear.) The Mongols were merciless in battle, but they were tolerant as rulers. As leader for the Mongols Genghis Khan brought stability and order to Eurasia. During the increase of the Mongol Empire, they guaranteed safe passage across the Silk Road. (Result of this was trade and cultural diffusion between Europe and Asia.)
Pros & Cons to Khan's Ruling
The Mongol History
Genghis Khan was born around 1162. His father was poisoned to death and left his 3 sons, including Genghis Khan himself and a wife. Genghis older brothers go into a fight and one killed the other. Later, his mother and wife were kidnapped. Soon after he went on to unify the Mongols.
Mongols As Rulers
As rulers the Mongols were tolerant to handle. They would adopt the culture of the people they conquered, so they wouldn't have to teach them a new religion and or force them to convert their beliefs.
The Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace)
From the mid 1200s to the mid 1300s its was the time of the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol Peace. Later Khan's grandson did foreign trade with China and it increased due to Pax Mongolica.
Chinese technology finally reached Europe such as gunpowder and the magnetic compass.
Khanate in Persia helped control the Silk Road.
Mongol destruction of Klev increased the importance of Moscow in Russia.
Mongols were the first to rule over the Islamic Empire.
Mongol rule was over China.
Diseases such as the plague (Black Death) reached Europe.
After Genghis Khan died, the Mongol Empire was divided into 4 parts. It was ruled by son and grandson of Genghis Khan. In 1279, his grandson Kublai Khan became the first foreign leader to rule China. He began a new era called the Yuan Dynasty. Kublai liked the Chinese culture so much that the moved the capital to China. But, he excluded the Chinese from serving in high government offices and relied on foreigners to serve in his government. He proved to be a good emperor for China. He built roads and extended the Grand Canal to help improve transportation in China. Kublai died in 1294. After his death the Mongol Empire began to grow weak. In conclusion, in 1330, the Mongols lost control of Persia. In 1368, Chinese overthrew Mongols and started the Ming Dynasty. In 1370, the Mongols lost control of Central Asia. In 1480, under Ivan 111, Russia increased independence from Mongol rule and started the Romanov Dynasty.