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The Nervous System

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Emily Yax

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of The Nervous System

The Neuron
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Senses
The Nervous System
By Emily Yax, Savanna Atwal, Olivia Kneller and Jae Yeon Chung
Meningitis
Summary
The Neuron
The Central Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Senses
Conclusion
The nervous system is our way of collecting information and responding to it.
The neuron is the cellular unit of the nervous system.
The central nervous system is made of the brain and spinal cord and processes the information and coordinates a response.
The peripheral nervous system collects information and carries the response to muscles and glands.
The senses are our tools for collecting information about the world.
Meningitis is a neurological disease affecting the meninges and can lead to brain damage or death.
Meningitis
The basic cellular unit of the nervous system

Nucleus

Dendrites
Axon Myelin sheath Nodes Axon Terminals
The Central Nervous System
Areas of the brain:
The Cerebrum
The Thalamus and hypothalamus
The Cerebellum
The Synapse
The Brain
Stem
Cell Body
The Cerebrum:
Definition: Responsible for the voluntary activities of the body.
-
Largest
part of the brain.
-
2 hemispheres
Each hemisphere controls the
opposite
side of the body
-
Cerebral Cortex
Outer layer of the cerebrum.
Thinking and other complex behaviors
-Processes info from sense organs & controls body movements
-White matter: bundle of axons with myelin sheaths
Receive impulses from other neurons and carry impulses to cell body
Carries impulses away from cell
Insulating membrane surrounding the axon
Exposed parts of axon
Types of Neurons
Sensory Neurons
Carry impulses from the the sense organs to CNS
Motor Neurons
Carry impulses from CNS to muscles and glands
Interneurons
Process information from sensory neurons and send commands to other interneurons or motor neurons
But not all brain cells are neurons...
Thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus:

Receives messages from the sense organs and relays the info to the proper part of the cerebrum for further processing
Hypothalamus:
Acts as a control center of recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temp
Cerebellum
Definition:
Coordinates movement
and
controls balance.
-
Second largest
part of the brain
-Allows the body to move gracefully
-Used in muscle memory (sports)
The Brain Stem
Definition:
Connects the brain and the spinal cord
Consists of:
1. Midbrain
2. Pons
3. Medulla Oblongata
-
Regulates flow of info
between brain & rest of the body
-Controls:
breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure regulation
-Part of the brain that
keeps your body functioning
when sleeping or lost consciousness from something like an injury
Spinal cord & the brain
-
Main link between the brain and the rest of the body.
Telephone pole
-Carries certain kinds of info, including reflexes

Reflexes:
quick, automatic response to a stimulus
-
31
pairs of spinal nerves are connected to the brain and other parts of the body
Dopamine
Definition:
A neurotransmitter that is associated with the brain's pleasure and reward centers
-Neurons in the
limbic system
and
hypothalamus
release dopamine.
When we do pleaurable things, our dopamine level goes up.
-An example is
drugs
. They create an
addictive"high"
-When there are
extremely high dopamine levels
in the brain, then the brain will
reduce the number of neurotransmitters
.
-To create the high feeling of before,
larger amounts
of the drugs are
needed
.
-This creates an ongoing
addiction cycle
that becomes harder to break.
Glial Cells
Protect and support neurons; new research shows they may do more though...
Where the axon terminal meets the dendrite of a different neuron.
Stimulated by the incoming impulse,
vesicles
release
neurotransmitters
, which transmit the impulse across the
synaptic cleft
. The neurotransmitters bind with
receptors
on the dendrites, which stimulate an impulse in that neuron, and the impulse continues on...
The Impulse
What is meningitis?
-Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

Ends of axon, where cell passes impulse to next cell.
Caused by:
-Most times: viral infection
-Fungal and bacterial infections

Meningitis
Why is it harmful?
-Severe inflammation to the brain and spinal cord.
-Classified as a medical emergency
-Can be life-threatening
-Sometimes meningitis can heal by itself in a few weeks
Resting Neuron
Sodium ions (Na+) are pumped out of the cell, and potassium ions (K+) are pumped in.
Potassium ions can diffuse out of the cell and sodium cannot, so the inside of the cell is negativity charged compared to the outside, this is the resting potential.
Symptoms of Meningitis:
What are the symptoms?
-Severe headache -Sleepiness
-Stiff neck -Confusion
-Sudden fever -Sensitivity to light
-Seizures -No desire for food/ drinks
-Vomiting -(Rash in some cases)
-Infant symptoms:
-High fever -Constant crying
-Irritability -Inactivity
-Bulge in the soft spot of baby's head
-Stiffness in body and neck
The sudden reversal of the resting potential
The neuron is stimulated by another neuron. The impulse travels down the axon away from the cell body.
Sodium channels open, and Na+ flows into the cell, making the inside more positive than the outside, called action potential.
Sodium channels close, and potassium channels open, allowing K+ to flow out of the cell, restoring resting potential.
Risk factors:
-If a child has skipped vaccinations
-If pregnant then you are more likely to get a bacterial virus called listeriosis which can also cause meningitis. If a pregnant woman gets listeriosis then the baby is also at risk.
-More likely if you have AIDS, diabetes, use drugs, ect.
The Threshold
Function of the Nervous System
Collecting information about the body's internal and external environment, processing that information, and responding to it.
Not all stimuli are strong enough to start an impulse. If the stimulus isn't strong enough, the neuron won't fire. Stimuli intensity is determined from frequency of action potentials.
sensory system is a part of nervous system
responsible for processing sensory information
sensory receptors

neural pathway

sensory perceptions
respond to the stimuli from the
internal or external environment
Sensory Receptors
exteroceptor
interoceptor
proprioceptor
Exteroceptor
a sensory receptor that detects
stimulus from outside the body
divided into groups depending on characteristics of the stimulus
Chemoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors
Photoreceptors
Neural Pathway
Senses detected from sensory receptors are transmitted to the sensory perceptions, the spinal cord or the brain
Thank You!

The peripheral nervous system is the division of the nervous system that controls impulses and their transmission to muscles or glands.

The peripheral nervous system plays a fundamental role in
maintaining homeostasis. It does this by coordinating the activities of other organs and organ systems.

No. The peripheral nervous system, like the central nervous system that it is a part of, is comprised of several different separately functioning systems that work together to maintain a stable internal environment for the body and keep it functioning correctly.
The Sensory Division
The sensory division of the peripheral nervous controls the impulses that go from the sense organs to the central nervous system.
There are multiple different kinds of receptors to receive and relay these impulses.

chemoreceptor: responds to (you guessed it!) chemicals.
Some examples of places chemoreceptors can be found are the mouth, nose, and blood vessels.

photoreceptor: like plants, animals also have signals and impulses that respond to light. These are called photoreceptors, and they can be found in...
the eyes!
mechanoreceptor: this receptor responds to touch, pressure, stretching, and vibrations. It is located in places associated with touch, such as...the skin! As well as hair follicles, the ears, ligaments, and tendons.
nearly there now, only 2 more to go!
thermoreceptor: this responds to temperature changes, which you can note from the prefix 'therm,' which in Latin refers to heat or warmth.

and now, last but not least, a receptor we are all familiar with

pain receptor: this receptor responds to tissue injury. It can be found throughout the entire body, and is an incredibly important method of warning us when we are doing something harmful to ourselves. It can also be quite uncomfortable, but it's our bodies' way of saying 'Hey, stop that. Something isn't right here.'
and now, on to the motor division


this section of the peripheral nervous system transmits impulses from the central nervous system ot muscles or glands.
The Motor Division
The Somatic Nervous System
this division of the peripheral nervous system regulates bodily activities that are consciously controlled, such as the movement of skeletal muscles. When the body is in danger, or not functioning correctly, this division has the potential to take over.
a few vocab words you should remember that fall under the control of the somatic nervous system...
voluntary control: when you move consciously, you are activating the use of motor neurons in the somatic nervous system. Impulses start in the brain and then move to the spinal cord, where they synapse with the dendrites of motor neurons. Axons from motor neurons extend from the spinal cord, and then carry impulses to the muscles.
Is it just one big system?
What is it?
Why is it important?
reflex arcs: some actions of the somatic nervous system can occur automatically. Rapid automatic responses and reflexes, such as blinking or sneezing that involve structures in the head, are controlled by the brain.
Autonomic nervous system: regulates activities that are involuntary, and speeds up heart rate and blood flow when exercising. The autonomic nervous system is comprised of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Increases heart rate
Prepares the body for intense activites
Releases energy rich sugar into the blood
Prevents activities not related to body's flight or fight response
Decreases heart rate
Brings blood pressure down
Activates digestion and pathways that store food molecules in the tissue of the body
Rest & Digest Response
Full transcript