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Nutrition and Health Presentation: Prenatal Nutrition

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Divya Shah

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Nutrition and Health Presentation: Prenatal Nutrition

PRENATAL NUTRITION
REFERENCES
DIVYA SHAH
ROYA SHAMSUL
MATHUSA SIVATHARMAN

Prenatal Nutrition
Healthy
Weight Gain
SPINACH SALAD
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
Foods to
AVOID
SPINACH
CHICK PEAS
BELL PEPPERS
AVOCADOS
FETA CHEESE
Nutrients Required for
Prenatal Development
Pregnant women should have a diet that consists of a

variety foods
including proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fats.

A
balanced diet
is the best way to receive nutrients, but
vitamin supplements
can also be beneficial.

Eating well, combined with taking a daily multivitamin, can give a woman the nutrients she needs to:
feel
GOOD
have
ENERGY
support a
HEALTHY
pregnancy
Fruits
Vegetables
Whole-grain breads and pastas
Milk products
Beans
Poultry
Fish that is low in mercury
Vitamins and minerals help give your body the nutrients it needs to stay
healthy
and
repair

any damages. You can get most vitamins by eating healthy foods that include:
Vitamin
Role in Prenatal Development
FOLATE
Details
DECREASES
the risk of:
neural tube defects (NTDs) i.e. spina bifida and anencephaly
birth defects of the brain and spinal cord
oral cleft
cardiovascular anomalies

Side note
: Folate also protects pregnant women against cancer and stroke.


*
Expecting mothers are to increase their folate intake and have a higher red blood cell folate concentration (greater than 906 nmol/L)
Prenatal folate vitamins do not need a prescription
Multivitamins should start to be taken 3 months before conception
Pregnant women should take multivitamins with 0.4 mg of folic acid daily

FUN FACT:
Adding folic acid to white flour, enriched pasta, and enriched corn meal has been mandatory in Canada since November 1998.
Nutrients Required for
Prenatal Development
Vitamin
Role in Prenatal Development
IRON
Details
DECREASES
the risk of:
anemia
preterm (premature) birth and associated conditions
low birth weight
perinatal infant mortality
muscle under-development

Side note
: Iron deficiency increases fatigue and cardiovascular stress reduces work capacity, and lowers resistance to infection within the mother.






Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency during pregnancy
Some women may need more iron than others
Daily supplements containing 16 to 20 mg of iron is recommended during pregnancy

FUN FACT:
Women should be discouraged to drink
tea or coffee
with meals as these drinks, in addition to
calcium supplements
, can interfere with iron absorption.
Food
SOURCES
:
Asparagus,
AVOCADOS
,

baked beans, beechnuts, black beans, brussel sprout,s chestnuts, kidney beans, lentils, peanuts, soy flour, wheat germ, yeast,
SPINACH
, sunflower seeds,
Food
SOURCES
:
wholegrain and iron-fortified breads and
cereal foods, dark chocolate and cocoa powder, tofu,
LEGUMES
,

green leafy vegetables, nuts and dried fruit, nuts
(B vitamin)
Nutrients Required for
Prenatal Development
Vitamin
Role in Prenatal Development
CALCIUM
Details
INCREASES
the ability to:
develop the nervous, muscular and circulatory systems
fetus to grow at a healthy rate

DECREASES
the risk of:
mother developing preeclampsia (which may cause premature birth)
mother losing bone density

Side note
: Calcium helps keep bones and teeth strong for mom and baby.



When a pregnant woman does not get enough calcium, the body takes the calcium from her bones to give it to her growing baby
While pregnant, the women’s body can absorb higher amounts of calcium
Recommended to consume 200 to 300 milligrams (mg) of calcium daily

Food
SOURCES
:
CHEESE
, milk, yogurt and ice cream (in moderation,
SPINACH
, broccoli, shrimp, sardines, dried beans, dried peas and tofu
VITAMIN C
PROTEIN and IRON
FOLATE
FIBER
CALCIUM
needed to make DNA and RNA (building blocks of cells)
make normal red blood cells and prevent anemia
essential for the metabolism of homocysteine
helps maintain normal levels of amino acid homocysteine
produces and maintain new cells

NOTE:

especially important during periods of rapid cell division/growth e.g. infancy and pregnancy
PROTEIN
approximately 70g daily
aids in fat distribution
decreases stress sensitivity
increases sperm quality
sizing of brain
IRON
carries oxygen throughout your body (so that cells can produce energy)
aids in the production of hemoglobin
prevents anemia
prevents low birth weight and premature delivery
Helps in the production of amino acids
repairs cells
at least 4 servings of milk and dairy products every day
source of bone-strengthening calcium, vitamins A, D and E, a range of B vitamins and plenty of protein
fetus will have sturdy bone development
advised 70 mg of vitamin C
promotes tissue repair and wound healing
promotes bone growth and repair
helps body fight infection
antioxidant that protects cells from damage
necessary for body to make collagen
helps your body absorb iron
reduces incidence of premature rupture of the membranes
NOTE:
deficiencies in newborn babies can impair mental development
helps provide a feeling of fullness
promotes healthy laxation
promotes healthy lipid profiles
increases glucose tolerance
ensures normal gastrointestinal function
maintains healthy eyesight
provides vitamin K, folate, potassium, vitamin B and vitamin C
Weight gain is
NATURAL
Helps the baby grow and develop and prepares the mother for breastfeeding
Reduces a mother's risk of complications in pregnancy and at delivery
"Eating for
TWO
"
Second
trimester: additional 350 calories
Third
trimester: additional 450 calories
Extra calories = Extra pounds (healthy)
Nutritional Needs and Physical Challenges
Key:
LISTEN
and do what is
COMFORTABLE
Factors that Affect Food Choices during Prenatal Development
Nutritional Needs and Emotional Needs
Tobacco, alcohol and drug use (birth defects)
Cheeses made with unpasteurized milk (listeria)
Raw or undercooked meat, undercooked eggs, and raw seafood, such as oysters, or sushi.
Frozen tuna, shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy and escolar (naturally occurring mercury)
Liver and liver products (large amounts of the retinol form of vitamin A)
Minimize caffine intake (max 200mg daily)
EFFECTS OF POOR NUTRITION:

PHYSICAL CHALLENGES -
FETUS
affects the placenta
prevents fetus from receiving oxygen and/or nourishment
amniotic membranes rupture (small birth weight)
choices in pregnancy affects how child's body develops and handles nutrients




DEPRESSION
ingested drugs e.g. Prozac or Zoloft might result in birth defects
generates some pretty noxious chemicals e.g. stress hormone cortisol
mother's stress level affects the way her baby responds to stress
Physical activity should continue
e.g. moderate walking, swimming, prenatal yoga or Pilates classes
blood glucose levels can decrease more rapidly
PHYSICAL CHALLENGES -
MOTHER
leads to gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, toxemia or fatal pre-eclampsia
increase chances of pregnancy discomforts

Physical Activity
Nausea and vomiting
may decrease appetite and limit food intake and cause loss of minerals and vitamins, and lead to dehydration
Constipation
can lead to reduced appetite and food intake, which can have nutritional consequences.
Blinggs, J. (Director). (2003). Prenatal development [Documentary]. India: Meridian Education Corp..

Diet During Pregnancy. (n.d.). American Pregnancy Association. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/diet-during-pregnancy/

Embryonic Development: Embryonic, Germinal, Fetal Development Stages. (n.d.). www.pregnancy-baby-care.com. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.pregnancy-baby-care.com/pregnancy-stages/embryonic- development.html

Feature, K. (n.d.). 6 Must-Eat Foods for Pregnancy. WebMD. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.webmd.com/baby/features/must-eat-foods-pregnancy

Hamilton, W. J., Boyd, J. D., & Mossman, H. W. (2007). Hamilton, Boyd and Mossman's human embryology: prenatal development of form and function. (4th ed.). Cambridge: Heffer.

Hopkins, B., & Johnson, S. P. (2005). Prenatal development of postnatal functions. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers

Mintz, B. (2006). Environmental influences on prenatal development. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. One A Day Multivitamins. (n.d.). One A Day Multivitamins. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://oneaday.com/

Pregnancy. (n.d.). Whattoexpect /> . Retrieved April 6, 2014, from
http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/symptoms-and-solutions/cravings-and-aversions.aspx

Pregnancy and prenatal vitamins. (n.d.).WebMD. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from
http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/prenatal-vitamins

Prenatal care. (n.d.). HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from
http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/prenatal/Pages/default.aspx

Recent Findings in Prenatal Described by Researchers from University of Basel. (2013, February 22). Health & Medicine Week, p. 239

The Best Foods to Eat After Throwing Up. (2013, August 16). LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/330220-the-best-foods-to-eat-after-throwing-up/


Certain
diseases and/or medical conditions
such as gestational diabetes impact the dietary choices of pregnant women to maintain blood sugar levels within a normal range.
Stress, anxiety, fatigue and other psychosocial characteristics
may lead to overconsumption of food (may lead to an increase in some micronutrients but decrease in others e.g. like folate and vitamin C)
Full transcript