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The Great Migration

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by

Maria Granera

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of The Great Migration

Why
At first, after the Civil War, African Americans gained some freedoms such as voting rights, freedom to travel, eligibility for public office, education. However, in 1877, all these ended because it came the end of Reconstruction and wealthy landowners regained political control over the South.
No more voting
Threats to stop black progress
Ku Klux Klan
Legal segregation and discrimination
Who were the people moving out of the South during the Great Migration?

Well, they were African Americans who were subject to complete dependence and economic slavery from wealthy white landowners in the South. Also, they were subject to violence and poor living conditions.
The Great Migration was the migration of six million African Americans from the isolated south, which discriminated this race, to the north, were they thought they would find better opportunities. However, they found pretty much the same.
Who
Image by Tom Mooring
What was the Great Migration?
The Great Migration
By: Maria Elena Granera

When was it?
The Great Migration happened in the twentieth century from 1916 to 1930.
Background
Between 1916-1918 few people noticed the black men brought to the north by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company.
500 black men came each they in hope that it was a journey into freedom.

1910: 7 million of 8 million African Americans lived in the South
1925: 1/10 of the African American population moved to the north
Motivations for leaving the South
1. Devastated crops
2. Agricultural workers thrown off land
3. King Cotton ended
4. North needed labor because WWI because their was a halt on European industrial immigrants, and they needed to manufacture war materials.
5. South was completely isolated: fewer schools, lower literacy rates, blacks lost right to vote, violence (lynching), and workers were underpaid.
Once in
the North
Competition for jobs and living space
Conspiracies to restrict African American housing
600 applying for housing but only 53 available
Few black doctors
Poor living and working conditions = diseases
Children's life expectancy was really low and IMF of African Americans was twice of Whites'.
Churches
Churches were very important because they provided relief and a response to African Americans' particular needs.

Noble Drew Ali - Moorish Science Temple of America
Prophet F.S. Cherry - Church of God (taught that Jesus was black)
Wallace Ford Muhammad - the Nation of Islam
Father Divine & Daddy Grace - Peace Mission Movement
The Great Depression: the stock market crashed in 1929 (in 3 years 85,000 businesses were bankrupt). The GDP was cut by half. Falling crop prices hurt the south. Unemployment was everywhere; colored people lost their jobs.

Many people hoped for Roosevelt (elected in 1932) to help.
In 1933 he presented his economy recovery plan - The New Deal: it was directed to ALL Americans (20% of relief went to African Americans in rural south.
Push Factors
WHERE?
Full transcript