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THE HEART

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by

Isaac Lee

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of THE HEART

THE HEART
SPECIALTY
http://http://www.dundee.ac.uk/medther/Cardiology/hsmur.html
FUNCTIONS OF
THE HEART

DISEASES OF
THE HEART

STRUCTURES OF THE HEART
Superior vena cava
Right pulmonary
veins
Right atrium
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Right atrioventricular
(tricuspid) valve
Right ventricle
Interventricular septum
Aorta
Pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary arteries
Left pulmonary veins
Left atrium
Aortic semilunar valve
Chordae tendineae
Left atrioventricular (bicuspid) valve
Left ventricle
Papillary muscle
Reference
Structures, functions, and disease
Human body blood & disease - Patton Thibodeau
BLOOD FLOW OF THE HEART
Sinoatrial node or SA node (pacemaker)
Atrioventricular node (AV node)
AV bundle (bundle of his)
Purkinje fibers (subendocardial)

Contractions
Cardiac Cycle - Complete heart beat
Systole - Contraction of the heart muscle
Diastole - Relaxation of the heart muscle
Two seperate pumps
Pulmonary circulation- Movement of blood from right ventricle to the lungs, then to the left atrium
Systemic circulation- Blood from the left ventricle goes throughout the body and back to the right atrium.

Coronary circulation- Delivery of oxygen and removal of waste product from the myocardium.
CIRCULATION SYSTEMS
Four structures
Cardiac muscle
Intercalated disks
Specialized cardiac muscle cells
Heart and valve disorders
Coronary heart disease
Cardiac dysrythmia
Tachycardia
Rapid heart rhythm more than 100 beats per minute
Can be caused by drugs, toxin or fever and other factors
Heart failure
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Also know as
left heart failure
Inability of the left ventricle to pump blood effectively
Most often results from myocardial infarction

Rheumatic heart disease
Cardiac damage from an delayed inflammatory response to streptococcal infection
If severe, can result in stenosis deformities of the heart
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Condition affecting the bicuspid valve that result from rheumatic fever or other factors
The valve flaps extend back into the left atrium, causing leaking of the valve (back flow)
Stenosed valve
Valves are narrower than normal slowing blood flow from heart chamber
Myocardial infarction (MI)
Death of cardiac muscle cells resulting from inadequate blood supply (heart attack)
Angina pectoris occurs during an MI
Atherosclerosis
Lipids and other substances build up on the inside walls of blood vessels
Treatment for severely restricted coronary artery blood flow
Bradycardia
Slow heart rhythm less than 60 beats per minute
Can be caused by improper autonomic nervous control of the heart or from a damaged SA node
Sinus dysrhythmia
Variation of heart rate during the breathing cycle
Usually the heart rate increases during inspiration and decrease expiration
Cause is not clear
Trachea
Lung
Diaphragm
Left common carotid artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Superior vena cava
Right pulmonary artery
Right pulmonary
veins
Right coronary artery
and cardiac vein
Inferior vena cava
Descending aorta
Left subclavian artery
Arch of aorta
Left pulmonary artery
Pulmonary trunk
Left pulmonary veins
Branches of left
coronary artery
and cardiac vein
Apex
CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART
Superior (SA)node
(pacemaker)
Atrioventricular
(AV) node
Right and left
branches of AV bundle blocks
(bundle of His
Purkinje fibers
Diagrams
Human body blood & disease - Patton Thibodeau
http://www.e-heart.org/Photos/06_Valvular_Disease_Photos/%C2%A927-%20Mitral%20Valve%20Prolapse%20600%20x%20415.jpg
http://naturallysavvy.com/care/5-steps-to-prevent-atherosclerosis
http://www.learninglab.co.uk/headstart/images/four41.gif
Specialty
http://www.dundee.ac.uk/medther/Cardiology/hsmur.html
Pericardium
Endocardium
Myocardium
Visceral pericardium
(epicardium)
Pericardial space
Parietal pericardium
Fatty connective
tissue
Coronary
vessels
The
lub
sound is caused by AV valve closing abruptly as the ventricles contract (systole)
What causes the
"lub dub"
sound?
Pericardial rub
Mitral regurgitation
The
dub
sound is caused by both the semilunar valves closing as the ventricles relax (diastole)
http://www.dundee.ac.uk/medther/Cardiology/audio/prub.wav
http://www.dundee.ac.uk/medther/Cardiology/audio/mr.wav
Full transcript