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Biomolecules

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by

Sarah Wilson

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Biomolecules

Biomolecules Biomolecules: any organic molecule that is made by living things. Elements found in all living things:
Carbon (C)
Hydrogen (H)
Nitrogen (N)
Oxygen (O)
Phosphorus (P)
Sulfur (S) Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: Simple Sugars

Disaccharides: Simple sugar made up of two monosaccharides

Polysaccharide: Complex sugar made up of many monosaccharides
Energy
Structural Support
Cellular Identification Energy Structual Support Cellular Identification Animals can store energy in the form of glycogen Plants store energy in the form of starch What is an organic molecule?
Contains carbon Monomers and Polymers Monomers
molecules that can be bonded with similar molecules to form a chain
Polymers
a chain of monomers that are chemically bonded together How are polymers formed? Dehydration Synthesis: 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom are removed from monomers to form water. The two monomers are then joined together How are polymers broken down? Hydrolysis: The polymer is broken down by the addition of water. This is the reverse of dehydration synthesis. Molecules made from sugars Monosaccarhide Structure Usually in a ring shape
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio---EX: CH2O
Subunits are connected by covalent bonds Disaccharides Polysaccharides Cellulose is a carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls

Chitin: found in exoskeletons of insects and the shells of crabs and lobsters Carbohydrates help white blood cells in determining if a specific cell belongs to the body by the use of carbohydrate strands branching off of the cell membrane. If the the carbohydrate strand is not recognized by the white blood cell then it is an invader and will be destroyed. Lipids Fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes Structure Made up of a glycerol group and three fatty acid chains.
Insoluble in water
Do not form large polymers Triglyceride Phospholipid Functions Energy storage
Insulation
Hormones
structure of cell membrane Energy Storage and Insulation Energy is stored as fat

Main source for long-term energy storage

Fat acts as insulation Cell Membrane The cell membrane is made out of phospholipids.

The head of the phospholipid is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and the tail is hydrophobic (repelled by water) Proteins Examples: Breads
Sugars
Pasta
Potatoes Organic molecules that provide structure and facilitate chemical reactions Structure Long chains or amino acids twisted together
Amino acids are connected by peptide bonds
Very large molecules
Globular or Structural Every Amino Acid Has... amino group (-NH2)
carboxyl group (-COOH)
variable side group (R) Provide Structure and Support
Movement
Transportation
Communication
Enzymes Levels of Structure Primary: Specific order of amino acids

Secondary: Primary structure is twisted to form coils

Tertiary: Overall shape of a single chain folded

Quaternary: Overall shape of folded multi-subunit complex Nucleic Acids Stores cellular information in the form of a code---DNA & RNA Structure Long chains of nucleotides

Nucleiotides consist of 3 parts:
Sugar unit
Phosphate group
Base
Cytosine, guanine, adenine, or thymine Functions Stores and transmits genetic information
Encode genes
Gene expression
Energy is stored in the phosphate bond Function Functions Enzymes Proteins that act as catalysts for chemical reaction How Enzymes Work.... Enzymes allow molecules, called substrates, to undergo a chemical change and form new substances called products. Areas on the surface of enzymes called active sites fit the shape of specific substrates. The enzyme and substrate bind together forming the enzyme-substrate complex. The products are then released and the enzyme then moves on to carry out the same reaction over and over again. Activation Energy The amount of energy needed to start a reaction.

Enzymes reduce the amount of activation energy needed Factors that Affect Enzyme Activity pH
Temperature
Concentration
Salinity Enzymes found in the Human Body Lactase--breakdown of lactose (milk sugar)
Amylase--aids in digestion of carbohydrates (Saliva)
Catalase--breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
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