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Civilizations of the 15th Century: China and Europe

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on 2 December 2016

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Transcript of Civilizations of the 15th Century: China and Europe

Civilizations of the 15th Century: Comparing China and Europe
By Emma, Katie, Savannah, and Victoria
China: the Ming Dynasty
Also rebuilt infrastructure and founded a demographic and economic revival
fragmented system and sharply divided Christendom
competitive political environment (Hundred Years War)
Cultural renewal (Renaissance) reclaimed Greco-Roman roots
Europe in the 15th Century
commissioned by Emperor Yongle
launched in 1405, continued for 28 years
large crew on board with many different jobs
Chinese Sailing Expeditions
supported by the state
blessed by the pope
2 major expeditions: Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama
Columbus (from Spain): trans-Atlantic voyage; ran into Americas
Vasco da Gama(from Portugal): around Africa and across Indian Ocean to south India
European Sailing Expeditions
Chinese-larger fleets, larger crews
Chinese deliberately ended their voyages
Sailing Expeditions: Comparison
enroll other countries in tribute system
establish China's prestige in Indian Ocean region
build trade connections
Chinese Motivations for Exploration
wealth- gold, spices, silk, slaves
convert people to Christianity
build alliances with those converts to help in Crusades
conquer and colonize
people without land could gain power
European Motivation for Exploration
wanted to restore original values
eliminate all signs of foreign rule
reverted back to traditions from Han, Tang, and Song dynasties
Cultural Changes in China
China: large, unified state
Europe: Fragmented and competitive
Comparing Governments
Europe's Government
Emperor Yongle had absolute authority
Helped educate the general public
Constructed Forbidden City
Tribute system
China's Government
Religion in China and its effects
Divided Christendom contributed to fragmentation
Greco-Roman influenced Christian portrayal
Christianity heavily influenced the Renaissance
Some artists drew from Islamic methods
Religion in Europe and its effects
both had restrictions on women
China's patriarchy tightened, while Europe's loosened slightly
both had economic classes
Comparing Inequalities
Renaissance occurring
new revival of interest in art, literature, sculpture
inspiration from ancient Greece and Rome
many religious and contemporary figures depicted
Cultural Changes in Europe
Confucianism
Orthodox gender roles
Influenced by past dynasties
Comparing Religions
Both China and Europe used influences from past empires to craft new cultures
China returned to its old ways
Europe used evolution of culture to move forward
Comparing Cultural Changes
both sought wealth
both were maritime expeditions
China didn't attempt to conquer or colonize; Europe did
Europe wanted to spread culture and religion; China didn't
Comparing Motivations for Exploration
Christine de Pizan- woman writer who argued against patriarchy
most writers were male and wrote of the inferiority of women
more trade led to more stratified classes
Inequalities in Europe
promoted Confucian gender roles
two empresses wrote about how women should behave
civil service system reestablished; class divisions strong again
Inequalities in China
A.Buddhist persecution
B.failure of the civil service exam
C.faulty infrastructure
D.The Mongol rule
1. What were the Chinese recovering from at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty?
A. They believed that conversion was their duty as Christians
B. The Pope would only help finance expeditions if conversion was the purpose
C. They wanted allies against the Muslim countries
D. The European kings decreed it
10. Why did Europe seek converts to Christianity in their expeditions?
A. Zheng He died
B. they wasted resources
C. it was the eunuchs' project, and the bureaucrats didn't like the eunuchs
D. China was believed to be self-sufficient
9. What is not a reason why the Chinese expeditions stopped?
A. both sought to conquer new lands
B. both sought to spread their religion
C. both expeditions were approved by state governments
D. both were seeking to capture slaves
8. How were Chinese and European sailing expeditions similar?
A. foot binding
B. civil service examinations
C. writing systems
D. maritime expeditions
6. What was revived in the Ming Dynasty after the Mongol Rule?
A. Mongol Invasions
B. The plague
C. Economic collapse due to warfare
D. Economic collapse due to the disuse of the Silk Roads
5. What was one main factor that resulted in both the Ming Dynasty and Europe having to rebuild themselves?
A.They were more centralized
B.They taxed more efficiently
C.They had completely eradicated warfare in the area
D.The Forbidden City was built
4. Which of the following was a new improvement for Europe?
A.Both referred back to previous state structures
B.Both were centralized
C.China was involved in more warfare
D.Europe was entirely under the rule of the Ottoman Empire
3. Which of the following is true about Europe and China's government?
A.Improve infrastructure
B.Reestablish the civil service exam
C.Conquered parts of Southeast Asia
D.centralized the Chinese government
2. Which of the following is something Emperor Yongle did NOT do to improve China?
A. China had fewer restrictions on women than Europe
B. Neither China nor Europe had restrictions on women
C. Both China and Europe had equally harsh restrictions on women
D. China had more restrictions on women than Europe
The correct answer is

A. They believed that conversion was their duty as Christians
B. The Pope would only help finance expeditions if conversion was the purpose
C. They wanted allies against the Muslim countries
D. The European kings decreed it
The correct answer is

The correct answer is

The correct answer is

The correct answer is

The correct answer is
The correct answer is

The correct answer is

The correct answer is

The correct answer is

7. How did China's patriarchy compare to Europe's patriarchy during this time?
A. Zheng He died
B. they wasted resources
C. it was the eunuchs' project, and the bureaucrats didn't like the eunuchs
D. China was believed to be self-sufficient
European motivation: wealth and religious conversion
Europeans continued their voyages
Both European and Chinese expeditions were approved or ordered by state governments.
<--Columbus
Sailing Route

Vasco da Gama
Sailing Route
Sailing Routes of Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus
Continued earlier patterns of state building
Fragmented system with many separate, independent states
Taxed their citizens more efficiently
Hundred Years War
QUIZ
Cultural
Discouraged any foreign rule
Confucianism
Orthodox gender rules
Encyclopedia
Relocated capital to Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City and Temple of Heaven
Political
Civil service examination system
Centralized government
Power concentrated with the emperor
Restored millions of acres to cultivation/reforestation
Resulted in a stronger China, and one of the best-governed civilizations
Economy
Largest and most impressive maritime expeditions
First fleet was commissioned by Emperor Yongle in 1405
Six more followed
Sought to enroll others in the tribute system
Ended abruptly and deliberately
1368-1644
Promoted Confucian learning
Orthodox gender roles
Temple of Heaven
Two empresses wrote instructions of female behavior
Resulted in a similar system that the Han, Tang, and Song dynasty had
The Renaissance
Sought to imitate Greco-Roman influences
Some artists looked to Islamic world
Christine de Pizan
China
Europe
Christianity
Influenced by Greco-Roman ideals
Renaissance
A.Buddhist persecution
B.failure of the civil service exam
C.faulty infrastructure
D.The Mongol rule
A.Improve infrastructure
B.Reestablish the civil service exam
C.Conquered parts of Southeast Asia
D.centralized the Chinese government
A.Both referred back to previous state structures
B.Both were centralized
C.China was involved in more warfare
D.Europe was entirely under the rule of the Ottoman Empire
A.They were more centralized
B.They taxed more efficiently
C.They had completely eradicated warfare in the area
D.The Forbidden City was built
A. Mongol Invasions
B. The plague
C. Economic collapse due to warfare
D. Economic collapse due to the disuse of the Silk Roads
A. foot binding
B. civil service examinations
C. writing systems
D. maritime expeditions
A. China had fewer restrictions on women than Europe
B. Neither China nor Europe had restrictions on women
C. Both China and Europe had equally harsh restrictions on women
D. China had more restrictions on women than Europe
A. both sought to conquer new lands
B. both sought to spread their religion
C. both expeditions were approved by state governments
D. both were seeking to capture slaves
Full transcript